Sa Sa Aung, Nursalam Nursalam, Yulis Setiya Dewi


Introduction: Exposure to pathogens is a serious issue for nurses. The literature explains that standard precaution have not consistently done in nursing. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors affecting the compliance of nurses in Myanmar in performing standard precautions. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design. Samples included 34 nurses in Waibagi Specialist Hospital (SHW), Myanmar. The independent variables were the characteristics of nurses, knowledge of standard precaution, and exposure to blood / body fluids and needle puncture wounds. The dependent variable was the performance of standard prevention. Data analyzed using descriptive analysis and logistic regression. Results: The result showed that almost respondents (91.18%) had a good knowledge about prevention standards and 73.5% of respondents had good adherence in performing standard precaution. However, in practice nurses have not been consistent in closing the needles that have been used correctly. The results showed that nurse characteristics did not significantly affect adherence to standard precaution with statistical test results as follows: age (p = 0.97), gender (p = 1.00), religion (p = 0.72), education (p = 0.85), work experience at SHW (p = 0, 84), education training program (p = 0.71), knowledge (p = 0.76), and needle stick injury (p = 0,17). But, there was a significant influence between adherence to standard precaution on the incidence of injury due to puncture needle with p value = 0.01. Discussion: The barriers to applying standard precautions by Myanmar nurses can be reduced by providing basic training, supervision and improvement of operational standard procedures.

Full Text:



Abubakar S M, Haruna H, Teryila K R, Hamina D, Ahmadu I, B.M.& B.U., 2015. Assessment of knowledge and practice of standard precautions among nurses working at Federal Medical Centre Gombe, Nigeria. Direct research Journal of Health and Pharmacology, pp.3(1):1–11. Available at: http//:direct>.

Apostolopoulou E, Raftopoulos V, Terzis K, Pissaki K, Pagoni M, D.S., 2010. Infection probability score, APACHE II and KARNOFSKY scoring systems as predictors of infection onset in haematology–oncology patients. Journal Clinical Nursing patients., 19, p.: 1560–1568.

Ayed A, Eqtait M, F.I. and A.G., 2015. ’Knowledge & Compliance of Nursing Staff towards Standard Precautions in the Palestinian Hospitals 36th ed.,

Bowling A, 2009. Research Methods in Health. Investigating Health and Health Services.’ 3rd. edition. Berkshire: Open University Press.

CDC, 2014. Guide to Infection Prevention for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care’ Retrieved from. Available at: [Accessed December 17, 2015].

Demir F, 2009. A survey on prevention of surgical infections in operating theatres’, Worldviews Evidence Based Nursing. , pp.102–113. Available at:> [Accessed December 8, 2015].

Efstathiou G, Papastavrou E, R.V.& M.A., “Compliance of Cypriot nurses with Standard Precautions to avoid exposure to pathogens.” Nursing and Health Sciences,, 13(1), pp.53–59.

Efstathiou G, Papastavrou E, R.V.& M.A., No TitleFactors influencing nurses’ compliance with Standard Precautions in order to avoid occupational exposure to microorganisms : A focus group study.’ Bio Medical Center Nursing. , 10(1). Available at: 6955/10/1> [Accessed April 10, 2015b].

Gebresilassie A, Kumei A, & Y.D., 2014. No Title‘Standard Precautions Practice among Health Care Workers in Public Health Facilities of Mekelle Special Zone , Northern Ethiopia. Community Medicine & Health Education, 4(3), p.1000226.

Henderson DK, 2012. ‘Management of needlestick injuries. A house officer who has a needlestick. Journal of the American Medical Association, 37(1).

Hinkin J & Cutter J, How do university education and clinical experience influence pre-registration nursing students’ infection control practice?' A descriptive, cross sectional survey. Nurse Education Today. , 34(2), pp.196–201.

Jackson, C., Lowton, K. & Griffiths, P., 2014. International Journal of Nursing Studies Infection prevention as “‘ a show ’”: A qualitative study of nurses ’ infection prevention behaviours. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(3), pp.400–408.

Karmon SL, Mehta SA, Brehm A, Dzurenko J, P.M., 2013. Evaluation of bloodborne pathogen exposures at an urban hospital,’. American Journal of Infection Control, 41(2), pp.185–186.

Khine MM, 2007. Adherence of nurses to universal precautions of blood products in 300 Bedded Teaching Hospital, Mandalay, Myanmar’.

Luo Y, He GP, Z.J.& L.Y., 2010. Nursing and Care ‘Factors impacting compliance with standard precautions in nursing, China. International Journal of Infectious Diseases’, 3(6).

Mortada EM & Zalat MM, 2013. Assessment of compliance to standard precautions among surgeons in Zagazig University Hospitals , Egypt , using the Health Belief Model,’J Arab Social Medical Research,

Parkin V, 2012. Infection Prevention Policy Standard Precautions Policy,

Punia S, Nair S, & S.R., 2014. Health Care Workers and Standard Precautions : Perceptions and Determinants of Compliance in the Emergency and Trauma Triage of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India’. International Scholarly Research Notices.

Punia, S., Nair, S. & Shetty, R.S., 2014. Health Care Workers and Standard Precautions : Perceptions and Determinants of Compliance in the Emergency and Trauma Triage of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. , 2014.

Reda, A.A. et al., 2010. Standard Precautions : Occupational Exposure and Behavior of Health Care Workers in Ethiopia. , 5(12), pp.1–6.

Rhode KA, Dupler A.E, P.J.& S.A., 2013. Minimizing nurses’ risks for needlestick injuries in the hospital setting,

Schmid K, Schwager C, D.H., 2007. Needlestick injuries and other occupational exposures to body fluids amongst employees and medical students of a German university: incidence and follow-up. Journal of Hospital Infection 2007, 65, pp.124–130.

Shwe WW, 2007. Compliance of Universal Precautions among House Officers of North Okkalapa Genaeral Hospital (NOGH)’, University of Medicine (2), and Yangon,.

Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, J.& C.L., 2007. Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings,’ Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Available at: [Accessed December 1, 2015].

Takimani, 2015. Factors influencing compliance with infection prevention standard precautions among nurses working at Mbagathi District Hospital Nairobi. Available at: [Accessed December 17, 2015].

Thu KH, 2012. Knowledge and compliance of universal precautions among Medical Doctors and Nurses at Yangon Orthopaedic Hospital, Public Health,

WHO, 2002. World Health Report 2002: reducing risks, promoting healthy life’.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

This journal is indexed by:


Creative Commons License

This journal (p-ISSN:1858-3598; e-ISSN:2502-5791) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View My Stats