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Harry Azhar Azis

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/mh.v16i2.5848
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Abstract


Abstrak

Perdagangan tekstil telah tunduk pada pengendalian unilateral, bilateral, dan multilateral melalui kebijakan perdagangan yang dilakukan oleh banyak pemerintah di seluruh dunia dalam beberapa dekade sejak awal abad ke-20. Masalah pertumbuhan ekonomi dan ketenagakerjaan merupakan alasan terpenting karena berkaitan dengan perlunya pengendalian perdagangan tekstil. Tindakan sejumlah negara yang terlibat memaparkan dinamikanya tersendiri. Apabila selama masa awal perkembangannya industri tekstil didukung oleh pertumbuhan ekonomi negara-negara, yang sekarang dikenal sebagai negara-negara maju, sejak pasca-Perang Dunia II negara-negara berkembang semakin bertambah untuk berperan pula. Pasar industri telah menjadi target ekspor tekstil dan pakaian negara berkembang selama abad ke-20. Namun, peristiwa tersebut seringkali dikaji di bidang perekonomian, sehingga tulisan yang secara khusus menyoroti sejarah hubungan perdagangan tekstil global dengan kesejahteraan penduduk Indonesia belum maksimal dilakukan. Artikel ini membahas bagaimana keterlibatan Indonesia dalam perdagangan tekstil dan pakaian global pasca-Perang Dunia II. Dengan menggunakan metode sejarah, artikel ini menyajikan fakta bahwa Indonesia telah berperan dalam perdagangan tekstil dan pakaian global pada masa pascakemerdekaan. Keterlibatan Indonesia dalam perdagangan tersebut melesat selama kurun waktu 1980-1993, meskipun negara ini tidak terlibat lebih jauh dalam negosiasi untuk menentukan aturan perdagangan secara global. Sektor ini cukup menopang perekonomian, namun tidak begitu berpengaruh secara lebih signifikan pada kesejahteraan masyarakat pada skala nasional.

 

Kata kunci: Indonesia, pakaian, perdagangan dunia, tekstil

 

Abstract

The textiles trade has been subject to unilateral, bilateral and multilateral control through a trade policy created by many governments in the world since the beginning of twentieth century. Issues on economic growth and labour are important because they are closely related to the needs of control in the textiles trade. Several countries which are involved in the textiles trade have their own dynamics. At the beginning of its growth, textiles industry was catalysed by the economic growth at developed countries. Furthermore, developing countries took this role after World War II. The industry market became the target of textiles and clothing export from developing countries during the twentieth century. There are a lot of research about economic in this period, but research about about the history of global textiles trade is rarely found. This article concerns how the Indonesian roles were in the global textiles and clothing trade after World War II. By using history method, this article presents facts that Indonesia was involved in the global textiles and clothing trade during the period after its independence. The Indonesia involvement in this trade increased from 1980 until 1993 although Indonesia was not fully involved in the negotiation about global rule of trade. Textiles sector has supported the Indonesian economy, but it has not significantly influenced people’s welfare at the national scale.

 

Keywords: clothing, Indonesia, textiles, world trade

 


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