Profile of Cerebral Palsy Patients in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia

Qorina Nadya Salfi, Darto Saharso, Atika Atika


Abstract views = 3986 times | downloads = 1981 times


Introduction: Limited profile data of Cerebral Palsy (CP) patients in Indonesia leads CP to be a less-known disease. The aim of this study is to describe CP patient’s characteristics, including demographic aspect, gestation and birth history, and CP related condition in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia.

Methods: Cross-sectional study using medical records of CP patients in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital (Surabaya, Indonesia) Outpatient Installation for Pediatric Neurology from January 2016 to June 2018. Data processed descriptively.

Results: From total 107 patients, 50 subjects met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 6.16 years old, with domination of male (3:2), live in Surabaya (56%), malnourished (24%), normal birth weight (80.9%), term age of birth (66.7%), spontaneous labor (60%), and also prenatal events as causes of Cerebral Palsy (69.5%). Pneumonia was found to be most among postnatal events leading to Cerebral Palsy (30%). Most of the type was spastic (9:1) with quadriplegic as the dominating one (64%). Congenital malformation was rarely found (38%), but co-morbidities were found in almost all sample (92%).

Conclusion: Gestation and birth history of CP patients are mostly ranged normal. Prenatal etiology is found dominating as the cause of CP, therefore emendation in antenatal care (ANC) shall be considered. Analytical study about CP in Indonesia also must be improved because it is still hardly found.


Cerebral Palsy; Pediatric Neurology; Indonesia; Surabaya

Full Text:



CDC. Cerebral Palsy.NCBDDD.CDC. 2017.

Mardiani E. Faktor - Faktor Risiko Prenatal dan Perinatal Kejadian Cerebral Palsy. Fakultas Kedokteran. Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro, 2006.

NHS. Cerebral Palsy NHS Choices. 2017.

Minear W. A Classification of Cerebral Palsy. 1956.

Jones MW, Morgan E, Shelton JE and Thorogood C. Cerebral palsy: introduction and diagnosis (part I). Journal of Pediatric Health Care: Official Publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners. 2007; 21: 146-52.

Cans C, McManus V, Crowley M, et al. Cerebral Palsy of Postneonatal Origin: Characteristics and Risk Factors. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. 2004; 18: 214-20.

Sankar C and Mundkur N. Cerebral Palsy Definition, Classification, Etiology and Early Diagnosis. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2005; 72: 865-8.

Stanley F, Blair E and Alberman E. Cerebral Palsies. London: Mac Keith Press dist. by Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Lang TC, Fuentes Afflick E, Gilbert WM, Newman TB, Xing G and Wu YW. Cerebral Palsy Among Asian Ethnic Subgroups. Pediatrics. 2012; 129: e992-8.

Stavsky M, Mor O, Mastrolia SA, Greenbaum S, Than NG and Erez O. Cerebral Palsy-Trends in Epidemiology and Recent Development in Prenatal Mechanisms of Disease, Treatment, and Prevention. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2017; 5: 21.

Colver A, Fairhurst C and Pharoah PO. Cerebral Palsy. Lancet. 2014; 383: 1240-9.

Indonesia KKR. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 1995/MENKES/SK/II/2010. Jakarta2010.

Mohamed M and Ali R. Clinical Profile, Associated Comorbidities and Risk Factors of Cerebral Palsy in Children in Sohag, Egypt. The Egyptian Journal of Community Medicine. 2018; 36: 49-56.

Tseng S, Lee J, Chou Y, Sheu M and Lee Y. Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Cerebral Palsy. PloS one. 2018; 13: p.e0191724.

Johnston MV and Hagberg H. Sex and the Pathogenesis of Cerebral Palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 2007; 49: 74-8.

Indonesia KKR. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor HK.02.02/MENKES/390/2014. Jakarta2014.

Gowda VK, Kumar A, Shivappa SK, et al. Clinical Profile, Predisposing Factors, and Associated Comorbidities of Children with Cerebral Palsy in South India. Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences. 2015; 10: 108-13.

Spittle AJ, Morgan C, Olsen JE, Novak I and Cheong JLY. Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Palsy in Children with a History of Preterm Birth. Clinics in perinatology. 2018; 45: 409-20.

Nelson K and Blair E. Prenatal Factors in Singletons with Cerebral Palsy Born at or near Term. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015; 373: 946-53.

Minocha P, Sitaraman S, Choudhary A and Yadav R. Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment: A Reliable Screening Tool for Nutritional Assessment in Cerebral Palsy Children. Indian journal of pediatrics. 2018; 85: 15-9.

Hariprasad PG, Elizabeth KE, Valamparampil MJ, Kalpana D and Anish TS. Multiple Nutritional Deficiencies in Cerebral Palsy Compounding Physical and Functional Impairments. Indian journal of palliative care. 2017; 23: 387-92.

Jacobsson B and Hagberg G. Antenatal Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2004; 18: 425-36.

Devesa J, Casteleiro N, Rodicio C, Lopez N and Reimunde P. Growth Hormone Deficiency and Cerebral Palsy. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. 2010; 6: 413-8.

Germany L, Ehlinger V, Klapouszczak D, et al. Trends in Prevalence and Characteristics of Postneonatal Cerebral Palsy Cases: a European Registry Based Study. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2013; 34: 1669-77.

CDC. What is Cerebral Palsy? 2019.

Sitorus F, Mogi T and Gessal J. Prevalensi Anak Cerebral Palsy di Instalasi Rehabilitasi Medik RSUP Prof. DR. R. D. Kandou Manado Periode 2015. JKK FK-Unsrat. 2016; 1: 14-9.

Goldsmith S, Garcia Jalon G, Badawi N, et al. Comprehensive Investigation of Congenital Anomalies in Cerebral Palsy: Protocol for a European-Australian Population Based Data Linkage Study (The Comprehensive CA-CP Study). BMJ Open. 2018; 8: e022190.

El-Tallawy HN, Farghaly WM, Shehata GA, Badry R and Rageh TA. Epileptic and Cognitive Changes in Children with Cerebral Palsy: an Egyptian study. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2014; 10: 971-5.

Chiang KL, Kuo FC, Cheng CY and Chang KP. Prevalence and Demographic Characteristics of Comorbid Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. Child’s Nervous System : ChNS : Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. 2019; 35: 149-56.

Pisani F, Facini C, Bianchi E, Giussani G, Piccolo B and Beghi E. Incidence of Neonatal Seizures, Perinatal Risk Factors for Epilepsy and Mortality After Neonatal Seizures in the Province of Parma, Italy. Epilepsia. 2018; 59: 1764-73.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Qorina Nadya Salfi, Darto Saharso, Atika Atika

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.




Creative Commons License

This Journal (E-ISSN:2620-8636) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View BHSJ Stats