Hypoglicemic and Antioxidant Activity of Petiveria alliacea in Diabetic Rat Models

Vania Azalia Gunawan, Harlina Soetjipto, Arifa Mustika

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/bhsj.v3i1.19129
Abstract views = 392 times | downloads = 256 times


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a degenerative disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia conditions in the body. Various complications of diabetes mellitus are caused by oxidative stress condition. Petiveria alliacea (P. alliacea) is a potential plant and easy to grow in hot regions. Leaf extracts of P. alliacea contain flavonoids and tannins which work as antidiabetic and antioxidant. In addition, other compounds found in P. alliacea leaf extracts like linoleic acid and allantoin show an increase in insulin secretion. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of P. alliacea.
Methods: We investigated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of P. alliacea on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomly divided into six groups named normal control, diabetes control, metformin (150 mg/kg/d), low dose of P. alliacea (90 mg/kg/d), intermediate dose (180 mg/kg/d), and high dose (360 mg/kg/d). Rats were orally given the treatment daily in the morning for fourteen days. At the end of the study, blood glucose level was measured and rats were sacrificed to measure blood malondialdehyde level.malondialdehyde
Results: P. alliacea extract dose of 90 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg, and also metformin significantly decrease blood glucose levels. P. alliacea extract dose of 360 mg/kg was able to lower blood malondialdehyde level significantly which were not obtained on metformin.
Conclusion: This finding suggests that ethanolic extract of P. alliacea possess antidiabetic effect at least on rats.


Petiveria alliacea; Blood glucose; Malondialdehyde; Streptozotocin (STZ); Diabetes mellitus

Full Text:



World Health Organisation. Diabetes. 2013 [cited 2014 May 31]. Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/

Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes. Diabetes Care.2004; 27:1047-1054.

Murray RK, Granner DK, Rodwell VW. Biokimia Harper 27th ed. Jakarta:EGC; 2009.

Randle MM, Riley CK, Williams LAD, Watson CT. A Systematic Review of the Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Petiveria alliacea L. In The Treatment of Chronic Diseases. J Plant Sci Res.2018; 5: 179.

Quadros MR, Brito ARMS, Queiroz ML. Petiveria alliacea L. extract protects mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection – effects on bone marrow progenitor cells . Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 1999;21:109-24.

Castellar A, Gagliardi R, Mansur E. In vitro propagation and establishment of callus and cell suspension cultures of Petiveria alliacea L., a valuable medicinal plant. J. Med. Plant. Res. 2011;5:1113-20.

Raintree Nutrition. Presence of compounds in anamu (Petiveria alliacea).2013 [cited 2015 Oct 4]. Available from: URL: http://www.rain-tree.com/anamu-chemicals.pdf .

Lai MC, Teng TH, Yang C. The natural PPAR agonist linoleic acid stimulated insulin release in the rat pancreas. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:1449-54.

Tsai CC, Chen LJ, Niu HS, Chung KM, Cheng JT, Lin KC. Allantoin activates imidazoline I-3 receptors to enhance insuline secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2014; 11:41.

Odukoya OA, Sofidiya MO, Samuel AT, Ajose I, Onalo M, Shuaib B. Documentation of wound healing plants in Lagos-Nigeria: inhibition of lipid peroxidation as in-vivo prognostic biomarkers of activity. Annals of Biological Research. 2012; 3:1683-89.

Purwanto B, Liben P. Model Hewan Coba untuk Penelitian Diabetes.Surabaya: PT Revka Petra Media; 2014.

Reagan-Shaw S, Nihal M, Ahmad N. Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited. FASEB Journal. 2007;22:659-61.

Esterbauer H, Cheeseman KH. Determination of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products: malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Methods in Enzymology.1990;186:407-21.

Elsner M, Guldbakke B, Tiedge M, Munday R, Lenzen S. Relative Importance of Transport and Alkylation for Pancreatic beta-cell Toxicity of Streptozotocin. Diabetologia. 2000;43:1528-33.

Szkudelski T. The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in B cells of the rat pancreas. Physiol Res. 2001;50:537-46.

Lores RI, Cires PM. Petiveria alleaceae L. (anamu) Study of the hypoglycemic effect. Medecine Interne. 1990;28:347-52.

Abdelmoaty MA, Ibrahim MA, Ahmed NS, Abdelaziz MA. Confirmatory studies on the antioxidant and antidiabetic effect of quercetin in rats. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2010;25:188–92.

Chakraborty A, Chowdhury S, Bhattacharyya M. Effect of metformin on oxidative stress, nitrosative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2011;93(1):56-62.

Hou X, Song J, Li XN, Zhang L, Wang XL, Chen L, Shen YH. Metformin reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species levels by upregulating expression of the antioxidant thioreduxin via the AMPK-FOXO3 pathway. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2010;396(2):199-205.

Anderson RA, Polansky MM. Tea enhances insulin activity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002;50: 7182–6.

Liu X, Kim JK, Li Y, Li J, Liu F, Chen X. Tannic acid stimulates glucose transport and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutr. 2005;135:165-71.

Kumari M, Jain S. Tannins: an antinutrient with positive effect to manage diabetes. Res.J.Recent Sci. 2012; 1:1-8.

Lagarde F, Beausoleil C, Belcher SM, Belzunces LP, Emond C, Guerbet M, Rousselle C. Non-monotonic dose-response relationships and endocrine disruptors: a qualitative method of assessment. Environ Health. 2015; 14:13.

Vandenberg LN. Non-Monotonic Dose Responses in Studies of Endocrine

Disrupting Chemicals: Bisphenol A as a Case Study. Dose Response. 2014; 12:259-76.

Kavlock RJ, Daston GP, DeRosa C, Fenner-Crisp P, Gray LE, Kaattari S, Lucier G, Luster M, Mac MJ, Maczka C, Miller R, Moore J, Rolland R, Scott G, Sheehan DM, Sinks T, Tilson HA. Research needs for the risk assessment of health and environmental effects of endocrine disruptors: a report of the U.S. EPA-sponsored workshop. Environ Health Perspect. 1996; 104 : 715-40.

Velayutham R, Sankaradoss N, Ahamed KF. Protective effect of tannins from Ficus racemosa in hypercholesterolemia and diabetes induced vascular tissue damage in rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012; 5:367-73.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Vania Azalia Gunawan, Harlina Soetjipto, Arifa Mustika

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



Creative Commons License

This Journal (E-ISSN:2620-8636) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View BHSJ Stats