Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health <strong>The Journal of Aquaculture And Fish Health (JAFH)</strong> is managed by the Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Universitas Airlangga. Published in February, June, and September. Department of Aquaculture en-US Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health 2301-7309 <p>1. The copyright of this journal belongs to the Editorial Board, based on the author's consent, while the moral rights of the publication belong to the author(s).</p><p> </p><p>2. The formal legal aspect of journal accessibility refers to the same Creative Common <span>Attribution + Noncommercial + ShareAlike</span> (CC BY-NC-SA), implying that publication can be used for non-commercial purposes in its original form.</p><p> </p><p>3. Every publication (printed/electronic) is open access for educational, research and library purposes. In addition to the objectives stated above, the editorial board is not responsible for copyright infringement</p> Antibody Response in The Blood of Cantang Grouper Infected by Viral Nervous Necrosis with Recombinant Protein Chlorella Vulgaris Vaccination <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cantang grouper </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">(Epinephelus </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">sp.) is one of the Export Oriented commodities which is a mainstay in increasing Indonesian mariculture production. The disease that causes many deaths in cantang grouper is Viral Nervous Necrosis. One of the most effective ways is by giving vaccines to fish. This study aims to develop a recombinant protein Chlorella vulgaris vaccine with the addition of an adjuvant to increase the immunity of cantang grouper infected with VNN</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">. </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">The method used was experimental with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consiting of seven treatments and three replications, namely (K+) cantang grouper infected with VNN, (T1) Healthy cantang grouper was given 33 µl of vaccine, (T2) Healthy cantang grouper was given vaccine of 66 µl, (T3) Healthy cantang grouper was given 112 µl of vaccine, (T4) Healthy cantang grouper was given 33 ul of vaccine and then tested against Viral Nervous Necrosis, (T5) Healthy cantang grouper was given 66 ul vaccine and then tested against Viral Nervous Necrosis, (T6) Healthy cantang grouper was given 112 ul vaccine and then tested against Viral Nervous Necrosis. The fish used were 8-10 cm in size and were reared for 56 days. The results showed that the </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Chlorella vulgaris </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">protein recombinant vaccine with the addition of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">adjuvant </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">gave a very significant effect on the immunity of cantang grouper infected with VNN with the best dose of 33 µl (T4) seen from the relative protection level (RPS) (75,6%), survival of cantang grouper (78%) after challenge test and a significant increase in antibody titer.</span></p> Choirul Huda Uun Yanuhar Muhammad Musa Yusuf Wahyudi Nur Sakinah Junirahma Nico Caesar Copyright (c) 2023 Choirul Huda, Uun Yanuhar, Muhammad Musa, Yusuf Wahyudi, Nur Sakinah Junirahma, Nico Caesar 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 144 154 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.39231 Aquafeed Biofloatation through Mycelial Hydrophobic Coating <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Aquafeed biofloatation through tempeh mould fermentation on sinking aquafeeds produces water-floating property, an alternative to the expensive extrusion technique. However, the role of the fungal mycelium in this biofloatation remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of surface mycelium of the fermented feed in the buoyancy. Commercial sinking feed was fermented using a tempeh starter at ambient temperature (28–33 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">°</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">C) for 48 h. Freshly fermented feeds were produced, some of which were peeled to remove the surface mycelium, while the others were left intact. After 24-h oven-drying at 50 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">°</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">C, physical tests were done on the peeled and unpeeled fermented feeds, plus unfermented feed as a negative control. Results showed that the unpeeled fermented feed had the highest floatability (48% at the 60</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">th</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> minute), and continued floating until the 120th minute with 36% floatability. In contrast, the unfermented feed did not float at all, while the peeled fermented feed sank within the first 2 minutes. Only the unpeeled fermented feed showed hydrophobic characteristics (&gt; 90</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">°</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> contact angle and 20.16 s water absorption time). Thus, the hydrophobic surface mycelium might prevent rapid water infiltration into the fermented feed matrix, enabling the intact fermented feed to float longer.</span></p> Liza Nurohmah Catur Sriherwanto Imam Suja’i Etyn Yunita Copyright (c) 2023 Liza Nurohmah, Catur Sriherwanto, Imam Suja’i, Etyn Yunita 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 155 167 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.38647 Formulation of Feed with Different Source of Carotenoids on the Colors Quality of Sunkist Balloon Molly Fish (Poecilia sp.) <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The parameter value of ornamental fish is determined by the brighter the color of a type of ornamental fish, the higher the value so that farmers need to maintain the color of the ornamental fish by providing feed containing color pigments that can be obtained from vegetable and animal sources of carotenoids. Sunkist balloon molly fish (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Poecilia sp</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">.) were stocked in an aquarium measuring 60 × 30 × 30 cm</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">3</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (5 fish/l), Objectives of this study was to determine the effect of feeding formulations using different carotenoid sources with the best treatment for improving the color quality of sunkist balloon molly fish (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Poecilia sp</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">.). The method used was experimental (quantitative) completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 treatments, 1 control, and 3 repetitions. Feed was given ad libitum (5% body weight) 3 times a day. Color quality data were analyzed using ImageJ Software and one-way ANOVA test. The results of the study showed that feed utilization efficiency, feed conversion ratio and growth performance were not significantly different between treatments. There was a significant effect on improving the quality of the color shown in the P</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">₃</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (yellow pumpkin) treatment of 10% as the best treatment among others. Water quality parameter that observed trend to be normal and stable from the beginning to the end of the maintenance period.</span></p> Nur Fidya Destianti Himawan Prasetiyo Ahmad Satibi Mad Rudi Ferry Dwi Cahyadi Agung Setyo Sasongko Ardana Kurniaji Copyright (c) 2023 Nur Fidya Destianti, Himawan Prasetiyo, Ahmad Satibi, Mad Rudi, Ferry Dwi Cahyadi, Agung Setyo Sasongko, Ardana Kurniaji 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 168 178 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.38536 Phytochemical Analysis from Three Different Methanolic Extracts of Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) Against LC50 Treatment of Zebra Fish as Model Fish <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Red ginger (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Zingiber officinale</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> var. Rubrum) as one of the Indonesian spices has so many important roles, especially in the health sector as a medicinal plant, which has many active compounds including phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and tannins. From some researches before, we can know that plants which grow in different places or locations have different tolerances generally. That statements can show that they have different content in their constituent metabolites definitely. Therefore, phytochemical analysis is needed to analyze the content of each red ginger (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Z. officinale </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">var. Rubrum) from three locations such as Red ginger (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Z. officinale</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> var. Rubrum) from Batu, Malang (RGB), Plaosan, Magetan (RGP) and Simalungun, Medan (RGS) to analyze each content its contains. Also, perform LC50 was needed for analyzing its effect on Zebra fish (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Danio rerio</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">) as a model fish. For this research, we use an experimental study with a Completely Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) method that has two independent variable such as different dosage and type of red ginger (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Z. officinale</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> var. Rubrum). In this study, from five dosages (10 mg/l; 20 mg/l; 30 mg/l; 40 mg/l; 50 mg/l) and three types of red ginger (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Z. officinale</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> var. Rubrum) treatment, it found that the highest mortality and lowest survival rate were at the highest dosage (50 mg/l) in RGB and extreme increase or decrease in the curve is found in RGP treatment.</span></p> Eka Fitria Febriani Maheno Sri Widodo Abdul Rahem Faqih Copyright (c) 2023 Eka Fitria Febriani, Maheno Sri Widodo, Abdul Rahem Faqih 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 179 190 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.36747 Fist Report of Stiphodon atropurpureus (Herre, 1927) in Marente Village, Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Marente is a village at the foot of the ancient Sumbawa volcano, located on the Tiu Kele river and the Agal waterfall, which empties directly into the sea. The ecological condition of the Tiu Kele river is an ideal environment for </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Stiphodon</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> fish to live and breed. Therefore, this study focused on identifying the species of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Stiphodon</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> sp. (Gobiidae), whose presence has not been recorded in West Nusa Tenggara. There is still no literature study related to the Gobiidae family, especially the genus </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Stiphodon</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in the waters of the Tiu Kele river, which makes this research very important to do. This research was conducted from September 13 to October 13, 2021, in Tiu Kele river, Marente village, Sumbawa. The tools used are net, dipper, aquarium, sampling tubes, thermometer, pH meter, and camera, while the material used is 96% alcohol for specimen preparation. The identification results stated that </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Stiphodon atropurpureus</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> had clearly visible characteristics. It had a bright blue body from the snout and cheeks to the tail, the dorsal fin is separated and fibrous. These results were also later strengthened from various related references about the physical properties and characteristics of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Stiphodon atropurpureus.</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The results of this research can later be used as a reference and new data related to the distribution of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">stiphodon</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in Indonesia, especially in Lesser Sunda.</span></p> Arung Mulya Sania Citra Ari Okta Andini Rasali Abdur rahman Win Ariga Sagita Cahyani Izzul Islam Veryl Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 Arung Mulya, Sania Citra, Ari Okta Andini, Rasali Abdur rahman, Win Ariga, Sagita Cahyani , Izzul Islam, Veryl Hasan 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 191 197 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.37049 Effect of Bitter Leaf Extract (Andrographis paniculata) against Edwardsiella tarda Bacteria In vitro <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This study aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of bitter leaf extract (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">A. paniculata</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">) against the growth of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">E. tarda</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> bacteria. This test was carried out using Kirby Bauer method (disc test) using five different concentrations, namely 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 250 mg/L in TSA (Tryptone Soya Agar) and incubated for 2x24 hours using a temperature of 30 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">o</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">C. The positive control used was chloramphenicol (5 mg/L), while the negative control used PBS. Bitter leaf extract contains active compounds that have bacteriostatic antibacterial properties. After incubation for 24 hours the concentration of 250 mg/L showed the highest inhibition zone with a diameter of 7.82 mm and decreased at 48 hours to 7.46 mm. After being incubated for 24 hours, the concentration of 250 mg/L obtained an effectiveness value of 57.08% which is the best effectiveness, and there was a decrease in the 48th hour to 54.45%.</span></p> Giri Pratama Arief Prajitno Titik Dwi Sulistiyati Desy Amalia Hidayati Tania Nilakhandi Copyright (c) 2023 Giri Pratama, Arief Prajitno, Titik Dwi Sulistiyati, Desy Amalia Hidayati, Tania Nilakhandi 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 198 206 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.37044 Potential Bioactive Compounds of Melastoma malabathricium Leaf Extract in Feed on Growth Performance and Survival Rate of Tilapia Fry in Brackish Water <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Tilapia fish have a salinity tolerance of 0 to 10 ppt. However, the increase in salinity causes a decrease in the growth rate of these fish. In addition, the rapid maturation of the gonads causes this fish to experience a slowdown in growth. This study aimed to know the effect of giving </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Melastoma malabathricum</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> extract on the growth performance of tilapia fry reared in brackish water. The study consisted of treatment with 0, 1, 3, and 6 g/kg of feed with three replications of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">M. malabathricum</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> leaf extract. </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">M. malabathricum</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> leaf extract was mixed in feed with a CMC concentration of 2%. Feed is given as much as 3% body weight twice a day. Observations of growth performance were carried out every seven days, and the amount of feed was readjusted based on the results of sampling fish weight. The study was conducted for 70 days using brackish water with a salinity of 8 ppt. Based on the study results, it was found that the highest growth of tilapia fry at the end of the study was found in the treatment of 1 g/kg feed. The same thing was also found in measuring feed efficiency, survival, and specific growth rate. It indicated that the best concentration of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">M. malabathricum</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> leaf extract in supporting the growth performance of tilapia fry was 1 g/kg feed.</span></p> Muhammad Kasnir Khairun Nisaa Agria Budi Darmawan Nuril Farizah Iman Sudrajat Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Kasnir, Khairun Nisaa, Agria Budi Darmawan, Nuril Farizah, Iman Sudrajat 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 207 215 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.35201 Profiling of Microbial Community in Rearing Water of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Infected with White Feces Disease Syndrome <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Shrimp farmers have reported mass mortality of white shrimp (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Litopenaeus vannamei</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">), reaching 2-3 kg/day in Gerongan Village, Kraton District, Pasuruan Regency in mid-2021. Preliminary analysis suggests that mass mortality was caused by bacterial diseases. Thus, to find out the main pathogen causing the mass mortality, the present study investigated microbial composition in rearing media of white shrimp (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Litopenaeus vannamei</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">) infected by the white feces disease (WFD) and healthy white shrimp using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The research was conducted by collecting normal water samples and infected shrimp pond water samples. The results of the NGS assay showed that </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Vibrio vulnificus</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> was found dominant in WFD-infected shrimp pond water, therefore was suspected to be the main cause of WFD.</span></p> Karina Rahardjo Woro Hastuti Setyantini Muhamad Amin Copyright (c) 2023 Karina Rahardjo, Woro Hastuti Setyantini, Muhamad Amin 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 216 225 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.35023 The Characterization of Collagen Isolated from Red Snapper Fish Skin (Lutjanus sp.) by Hydroextraction Method with Different Concentration of Acid Solution <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Collagen is a connective tissue protein that is mostly produced from cattle and pigs. The use of cows and pigs as the manufacture of collagen causes a disease case, among others are bovine spongiform encephalopathy and transmissible spongiform disease. One of the alternative materials in the isolation of collagen is the use of fish skin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the concentration of acetic acid solution on the characteristics of red snapper collagen produced by the hydroextraction method and to determine the optimum concentration of acetic acid solution in the red snapper skin collagen isolation process using the hydroextraction method. This study was experimental with Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisting of 3 acetic acid treatment: (P1) acetic acid with concentration 0,1 M; (P2) 0,15 M and (P3) 0,2 M. This study showed that the use of different acetic acid had a significant effect (p&lt;0.05) on the yield parameters that is 1.72 – 2.46%, water content 11.12 – 12.8%, and protein content 83.66 – 84.81% and had no significant effect on the pH. The best treatment was P3 which use the higher concentration of acetic acid that produced higher yield 2.46% and protein content of 84.81%. P3 with concentration of acetic acid 0,2 M can be used for found the best result of characterization of collagen.</span></p> R. Rahardyan Prasetyo Ahmad Shofy Mubarak Eka Saputra Juni Triastuti Copyright (c) 2023 R. Rahardyan Prasetyo, Ahmad Shofy Mubarak, Eka Saputra, Juni Triastuti 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 226 232 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.35022 Impact of Water Source and Quality on Survival, Growth and Health of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings Reared in Indoor Concrete Tanks <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This experiment investigated the impact of two water sources and their quality on the survival, growth and health of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Clarias gariepinus</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> fingerlings reared in indoor concrete tanks. 400 fingerlings of mean weight 15.33±3.47 g and total length 12.63±1.00 cm (mean±standard deviation) was randomly distributed into four concrete tanks of 12 m</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">3</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> capacity each. Water quality was analyzed bi-weekly throughout study duration. Growth parameters such as mean weight gain (MWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion rate (FCR) were calculated using standard procedures. At study termination, duplicate groups per treatment were assessed for survival rate and a health status check was determined by a hematological evaluation and microscopic examination of parasitic incidence. Results indicated that fish reared in water sourced from bore-hole [BH] performed comparatively significantly better in growth (p &lt; 0.05) than fish in water from earthen pond [EP] as the MWG stood at 294.05±79.17 g for the former against 211.03±54.62 g for the latter with the survival rates for both treatments being in excess of 90%. Additionally, fish reared in EP presented with a higher infestation load of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Trichodina</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> spp., although there was no significant difference (U = 7, p &gt; 0.05) between fish reared in EP and BH treatments with regards to their packed cell volume levels and white blood cells. The outcome of this study shed light on the impact a water source can have on the growth and health status of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">C. gariepinus</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> with a recommendation of microbiological analysis of water supply from open/surface systems before usage for the African catfish aquaculture.</span></p> Ekaete Patrick Anwa-Udondiah O. A. Okunade A. S. Aboluwodi I. O. Soboyejo B. M. Lawal I. A. Akintayo Copyright (c) 2023 Ekaete Patrick Anwa-Udondiah 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 233 245 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.34474 Characteristic of Freshness Ulva lactuca Under Different Temperatures at Short-term Storage <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ulva</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> sp. is green macroalgae that very potential for producing food with high nutrients content. This species is found on a coastline in intertidal zone of Indonesia’s waters. There have been several research to this species start from post-harvest handling, nutrition, probiotic, and its ulvaran, however the information of effect of temperature storage to </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ulva lactuca</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> freshness is still lack. This study was undergone to evaluate the freshness quality of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ulva lactuca</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> by sensory changes in different temperatures short-term storage. In order to evaluate the effect of the different storage circumstances, the fresh </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">U. lactuca</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> was collected from its natural habitat (intertidal zone of Sepanjang Coast, Yogyakarta Indonesia). It was rinsed from debris and epiphyte, stored in transparent polyethylene bag, and were stored in 4 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">°</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">C, 15-20</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">°</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">C and room temperature for five days. Color, pH, ash, moisture, crude protein, chlorophyl, Total Plate Count, sensory analysis was undergone along the storage period. The sensory evaluation score of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">U. lactuca</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in 4 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">°</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">C were more than 6, and better than other storages. The crude protein (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">U. lactuca</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> stored in 4 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">°</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">C) decreased significantly on day 4 by 5.53%, it was lower than others. The TPC of all samples varied from 147x10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">3</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">in 0 days of storage to 2,462.5x10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">3</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> CFU/ml on the last day of storage. In summaries, sensory scores of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">U. lactuca</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> are more constant and higher in 4 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">°</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">C than in other storages, despite minor nutrient content deterioration.</span></p> Jasmadi Jasmadi C.D. Poeloengasih H. Novianty A.R. Sefrienda Sandi Permadi I.T. Suryaningtyas B. Kumayanjati D.E.D. Setyono Copyright (c) 2023 Jasmadi - Jasmadi, Sandi Permadi 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 246 258 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.33710 Implications of Good Aquaculture Practice (GAP) Application on Intensive Shrimp Ponds and The Effect on Water Quality Parameter Compatibility <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of water quality parameters in intensive white shrimp (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Litopenaeus vannamei</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">) cultivation activities based on Good Aquaculture Practice (GAP) quality standards implication practice. This research was carried out with the ex-pose facto causal design concept during one cycle of shrimp cultivation, with the indicator being studied was the condition of the water quality parameters which were then corrected with the GAP standard according to the Minister of Agriculture Regulation No. 75 of 2016. The results showed that the condition of the water quality parameters during the cultivation period was still in accordance with the GAP quality standards, except for the alkalinity parameter which had a value of 157 mg/L and organic matter 104.43 mg/L, both values ​​were above the GAP quality standard threshold. The abnormal condition of the two parameters was caused by unpredictable natural and seasonal factors. This can be seen from the trend of the temperature and salinity parameter graphs that fluctuate unstable. Furthermore, for technical parameters, the cultivation system at the research site was still in accordance with the cultivation quality standards listed in the GAP. Based on the discussions, it can be concluded that the water quality parameters at the research pond location as a whole were still in accordance with the GAP quality standard which refers to the Minister of Fisheries Regulation No. 75 of 2016, except for the alkalinity and organic matter parameters which had a slightly worse concentration than the GAP quality standard.</span></p> Heri Ariadi Tholibah Mujtahidah Abdul Wafi Copyright (c) 2023 Heri - Ariadi, Tholibah Mujtahidah, Abdul Wafi 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 259 268 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.32371 Substitution of Hibiscus sabdariffa with Curcuma longa in the Diets of Clarias gariepinus and the Effects on the Growth, Nutrient, and Hematobiochemistry <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Phytogenic feed additives are plausible alternatives to antibiotics and serve as growth promoters in aquafeed. This research aims at finding the effects of varying inclusions of natural antioxidants like hibiscus (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Hibiscus sabdariffa</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> L.) and turmeric (</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Curcuma longa</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">) on the growth, hematology, and nutrient utilization of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Clarias gariepinus</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> after 60 days feeding. This research used six feeds labeled as F1- F6 that varied in the composition of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Curcuma longa</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> and </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Hibiscus sabdariffa</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">. The weight (g) inclusions of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">C. longa</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> and </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">H. sabdariffa</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> were as follows, F1 0:250, F2 50:200, F3 100:15, F4 150:100, F5 200:50 and F6 250:0. Juvenile African catfish stocked at 9 catfish per 15L aquaria per 3 replicate aquariums (27/treatment feed) were fed for 60d. The catfish fed with F1 (250g </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">H. sabdariffa</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">) had the best specific growth rate 5.76±0.04 % day</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-1</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">, lowest feed conversion ratio 1.01±0.01, weight gain 31.65±0.13 g, and protein efficiency ratio 0.96±0.07. The growth of African catfish increased with the increasing inclusion of hibiscus supplements. Hematobiochemical parameters ALT, AST was better for catfish fed high hibiscus supplements. We noticed that hibiscus inclusion was inversely proportional to cholesterol and total triglycerides levels of fish. The deposit of adipose tissues in the catfish was higher, with increasing inclusion of hibiscus than turmeric supplement.</span></p> Uchechukwu Dennis Enyidi I. Ayogu Copyright (c) 2023 Uchechukwu Dennis Enyidi 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 269 280 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.31675 Health Risk Assessment Via the Consumption of Clam (Corbicula largillierti) Accumulated Heavy Metals (Pb) and Coliform Bacteria at Kapuas River, West Borneo <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As population activity is increasing and the Kapuas river is still a means of transportation, causing </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Corbicula largillierti</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> to accumulate heavy metals (Pb) and Coliform bacteria in their bodies. This makes it dangerous to be consumed by humans. Thus, this research has two main aims. First, to find out the concentration of Pb and Coliform inside </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Corbicula largillierti</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that lives at Kapuas river, Pontianak and the river’s water. Second, to analyze the health risk of consuming the clams.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Furthermore, the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) is used to analyze the Pb sample and the Most Probable Number (MPN) method is used to analyze the Coliform. The result of this research shows that concentration Pb and Coliform from the Kapuas river have exceeded the limits designated for aquatic biota based on the Decree of the State Minister for the Environment No. 51 of 2004. In addition, the health risk is measured using Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Target Carcinogenic Risk (TR) with scores for each are &gt;10 times the RfD, &gt;1 and 10</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">−3</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">. This result shows that based on the clam </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Corbicula largillierti</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> consumption for 70 years life span of 60 kg body weight, had a high and negative effect on health risk problems and had a cancer risk for consumers. However, the health risk problem might increase much worse due to the long and continual period of consumption exceeding estimated daily intake.</span></p> Widya Rahayu Dahlia Wulan Sari Copyright (c) 2023 Widya Rahayu 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 12 2 281 288 10.20473/jafh.v12i2.22985