Tulus Tambunan


Abstract views = 2078 times | downloads = 2211 times


This descriptive study is about micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in Indonesia. It has two objectives: (i) to estimate the impact of the Covid 19 crisis on MSMEs and compares it with other previous problems. Second, to explore crisis mitigation (CM) measures adopted by affected MSMEs. It shows that different types of crises have different transmission channels through which such situations affected MSMEs. CM measures adopted by affected MSMEs also vary by different types of emergencies and hence various business risks. In the 1997/98 crisis, replacing imported raw materials with local raw materials was widely adopted. The 2008/09 problem was finding new customers or markets in unaffected countries or switching to the domestic market. While in the case of the Covid-19 crisis, switching temporarily to manufacturing medical devices such as masks and changing the marketing system from conventional to e-commerce are the most widely adopted strategies. There is already a lot of literature on economic crises such as the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008 global economic crisis. The Covid 19 pandemic's reports and articles impact on the economy have emerged in the past two months. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first study on how such crises affected and through what transmission channels, MSMEs.


Keywords: MSMEs, 1997/98 Asian Financial Crisis, 2008/09 Global Financial Crisis, COVID-19 Crisis, CM Measures

JEL Classification: D2, F6, G01, I1

Full Text:



Afifiyah, S. (2020). Jenis Usaha yang Justru Melejit Saat Wabah Covid-19.

AKATIGA, & the Asia Foundation. (1999). The impact of economic crisis on Indonesian small and medium enterprises. The United States Agency for International Development.

Anwar, K. (2020). 10.238 UMKM di Kota Serang Terdampak Wabah COVID-19.

Asian Development Bank. (2020). The Economic Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Developing Asia. ADB Briefs.

Bauer, Armin and Thant, M. (2010). Poverty and Sustainable Development in Asia.

Berry, A., Rodriguez, E., & Sandee, H. (2001). Small and medium enterprise dynamics in Indonesia. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 37(3), 363–384.

Burhan, F. A. (2020). Bisnis Anjlok akibat Pandemi Corona, UMKM Bisa Ubah Strategi Usaha.

Ciremaitoday. (2020). Kisah Perajin Batik Perempuan di Cirebon, Bangkit Ditengah Pandemi COVID-19.

Dierman, van, P., Tambunan, T. T. H., Tambunan, M., & Wie, T. K. (1998). The IMF 50‐point program: Evaluating the likely impact on SMEs.

Griffith-Jones, S., & Ocampo, J. A. (2009). The financial crisis and its impact on developing countries. International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, 53, 23–50.

Hartono, D. (2011). Assessing policy effectiveness during the crisis: The case of Indonesia. International Labour Organization (International Institute for Labour Studies).

Hermansah. (2020). Simak strategi bertahan bagi UKM hadapi krisis akibat Covid-19 Pastikan bisnis Anda tetap berjalan dan mampu bertahan pada saat kondisi pandemi saat ini.

Hill, H. (2001a). No TitleSmall and medium enterprises in Indonesia: Old policy challenges for a new administration. Asian Survey, 41(2), 248– 270.

Hill, H. (2001b). Small and medium enterprises. Indonesia Asian Survey, 41(2), 248– 270.

Jan ter, W., & Edgard, R. (2006). SME Export Performance in Indonesia After the Crisis. Small Business Economics.

Jellinek, L., and Rustanto, B. (1999). Survival strategies of the Javanese during the economic crisis.

KB. (2020). Daftar Usaha yang Bisa Jadi Pilihan di Tengah Pandemi Virus Corona.

Khor, N., & Sebastian, I. (2009). Exports and the global crisis: Still alive, though not quite kicking yet. ADB Economics Working Paper Series, 190, 1–41.

Kompas. (2020a). Industri Terimbas. 13.

Kompas. (2020b). Industri Terpukul Covid-19. 13.

Kompas. (2020c). Peluang Memanfaatkan Lonjakan Pengunjung Laman E-dagang. 9.

Kompas. (2020d, April 9). Jumlah Korban PHK Terus Bertambah. 9.

Kompas. (2020e, April 17). Stabilitas Sosial Dijaga. 1.

Manning, C., & Diermen, V. P. (2001). Indonesia in Transition: Social Aspects of Reformasi and Crisis. American Sosciological Association, 30(4), 394–395.

Musa, A. (1998). . A study on access to credit for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia before and during the economic crisis (1997–1998). The Asia Foundation and the United States Agency for International Development.

Nurzaman. (2020). Dampak Wabah Covid-19 UMKM (Usaha Micro Kecil Menengah) Banyak Gulung Tikar.

Rahman, R. (2000). 37,000 SMEs hit by COVID-19 crisis as government prepares aid. The Jakarta Post.

Santoso, Y. I. (2020). Menghitung dampak Covid19 terhadap dunia usaha hingga UMKM.

Sato, Y. (2000). How did the crisis affect small and medium-sized enterprises? From a field study of the metal-working industry in Java. Developing Economies, 38(4), 572–595.

Setyowati, D. (2020). Siasat Empat UMKM Bertahan di Tengah Pandemi Corona.

SMERU. (2009). Monitoring the socioeconomic impact of the 2008/2009 global financial crisis in Indonesia.

Sundari, L. S. (2020). Dampak Pandemi Covid-19, Omzet UMKM di Kota Cimahi Turun 80 Persen. dampak-pandemi-covid-19-omzet-umkm-di-kota-cimahi-turun-80-persen

Suryahadi, A., Al Izzati, R., & Suryadarma, D. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on Poverty: An Estimation for Indonesia.

Tambunan, T. T. H. (1998). Impact of East Asia currency crisis and economic development on Indonesia’s SMEs and priorities for adjustment. He SME Resourcing Conference.

Tambunan, T. T. H. (2009). SMEs in Asian developing countries. In SMEs in Asian Developing Countries.

Tambunan, T. T. H. (2010a). Global Economic Crisis and ASEAN Economy (Theory and). Lambert Academic Publishing.

Tambunan, T. T. H. (2010b). The Indonesian Experience with Two Big Economic Crises. Modern Economy.

Tambunan, T. T. H. (2011). The Impact of the 2008-2009 Global Economic Crisis on a Developing Country’s Economy: Studies from Indonesia. Journal of Business and Economics.

Tambunan, T. T. H. (2019). The impact of the economic crisis on micro, small, and medium enterprises and their crisis mitigation measures in Southeast Asia with reference to Indonesia. Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies, 6(1), 19–39.

Tambunan, T. T. H. (2020). Dampak dari Covid-19 Terhadap UMKM.

Tambunan, T. T. H., & Busneti, I. (2016). The Indonesian experience with two big financial crisis and their impacts on micro, small and medium enterprises. Asian Research Journal of Business Management, 3(4), 89–100.

Thee, K. W. (2000). The impact of the economic crisis on Indonesia’s manufacturing sector. Developing Economies.

Wattanapruttipaisan, T. (2005). SME development and internationalization in the knowledge‐based and innovation‐driven global economy: Mapping the agenda ahead. The International Expert Seminar on Mapping Policy Experience for SMEs.

Wiradi, G. (1998). Rural Java in a time of crisis: With special reference to Curug village, Cirebon, West Java. The Economic Crisis and Social Security in Indonesia.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Tulus Tambunan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This journal is indexed by:


View My Stats


This Journal is Published by:

Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga

Address : Jalan Airlangga 4 Surabaya 60286, Jawa Timur, Indonesia

E-mail :

Lisensi Creative Commons
JDE (Journal of Developing Economies) (p-ISSN: 2541-1012; e-ISSN: 2528-2018) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License