Innovation in Financing Coastal Village Development through Community-Owned Microfinance Institution: A Case Study of Village Credit Institution (LPD) Kedonganan Bali
[Inovasi Pembiayaan Pembangunan Desa Pesisir Melalui Lembaga Keuangan Mikro Berbasis Masyarakat: Studi Kasus di Lembaga Pekreditan Desa (LPD) Kedonganan Bali]

Suadi Suadi, Ratih Ineke Wati, Nakagawa Mitsuhiro

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jipk.v11i2.15733
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Abstract


 Abstract

Microfinance institutions (MFIs) is a worldwide movement. This study aims to describe the key conditions in the rapid development of community-owned MFIs, namely LPD (Lembaga Perkreditan Desa/Village Credit Institution), through case study in LPD Kedonganan Village, Badung Regency of Bali. This village was selected for few reasons i.e. the shifting of people livelihood from fishery-based to tourism-related livelihood, the well-manage of coastal commons for fishery, tourism spot, and religious-related activities. Data collection was conducted through several visits during 2007 to 2018. This research adopted qualitative approach through observation and depth-interview with local leaders, MFI managers and users to discover their perspective about the MFI. Secondary data was also collected from various reports of LPD Kedonganan. The study showed that LPD was established, owned, and managed by the community through a custom village. LPD distributed credits to various components of the society and business including tourism and fisheries-related business, in and out of village territory, and to male and female customers, with various types, scales, and sectors. The healthy financial performance of the institution was clearly depicted by its rapidly growing profit and equity, and its low percentage of a non-performing loan for more than three decades. The better growing LPD has attracted various socio-economic investments in the grass root, for example a collective-owned and managed seafood restaurant. Overall, the study identified that the community had made such successful and sustainable collective-owned resource arrangement. The arrangement had been evolved and built by sharing rules linked to community values, customs and faith. As a result, the emerging institutions had contributed remarkable roles to rural socio-cultural and economic development and showed the opportunity to enhance some cooperative behaviors for sustainable governance of resources and rural livelihood.

 Abstrak

Lembaga keuangan mikro (LKM) telah menjadi gerakan yang mendunia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan faktor-faktor keberhasilan pengelolaan LKM berbasis masyarakat, yaitu LPD (Lembaga Perkreditan Desa), melalui studi kasus di LPD Desa Kedonganan, Kabupaten Badung Bali. Desa ini dipilih karena beberapa alasan antara lain terjadi pergeseran cepat sumber penghidupan masyarakat dari berbasis perikanan (sektor primer) ke pariwisata (sektor tersier), desa mampu mengelola sumberdaya milik bersama di pesisir secara baik untuk kegiatan perikanan, tempat wisata, dan kegiatan terkait keagamaan/budaya. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui beberapa kunjungan selama tahun 2007 hingga 2018. Penelitian ini mengadopsi pendekatan kualitatif melalui observasi dan wawancara mendalam dengan para pemimpin lokal, manajemen LPD, dan pengguna untuk memahami perspektif mereka tentang LKM. Data sekunder juga dikumpulkan dari berbagai laporan LPD Kedonganan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa LPD didirikan, dimiliki, dan dikelola oleh masyarakat melalui desa adat. LPD mendistribusikan kredit ke berbagai komponen masyarakat dan bisnis termasuk pariwisata dan bisnis terkait perikanan, melingkupi pengguna dalam dan luar wilayah desa, dan kelompok laki-laki dan wanita, dengan berbagai jenis, skala, dan sektor ekonomi. Kinerja keuangan lembaga yang sehat secara jelas ditunjukkan dengan laba dan ekuitasnya yang berkembang pesat, dan rendahnya pinjaman bermasalah selama lebih dari tiga dekade. LPD yang tumbuh lebih baik telah menarik berbagai investasi sosial-ekonomi di masyarakat, misalnya restoran makanan laut yang dimiliki dan dikelola secara kolektif. Secara keseluruhan, penelitian mengidentifikasi bahwa masyarakat mampu mengelola sumber daya yang dimiliki secara kolektif secara menguntungkan dan berkelanjutan. Model pengelolaan tersebut telah dikembangkan dan dibangun dengan berbagi aturan yang terkait dengan nilai-nilai masyarakat, adat istiadat, dan kepercayaan. Model kelembagaan ini telah berperan peran penting bagi pembangunan sosial-budaya dan ekonomi pedesaan dan menunjukkan peluang untuk meningkatkan perilaku kerja sama untuk tata kelola sumber daya dan mata pencaharian pedesaan yang berkelanjutan.


Keywords


microfinance, collective actions, social capital, community development, Bali

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