Jurnal Kimia Riset https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR <p><strong>Jurnal Kimia Riset (JKR)</strong> is a scientific journal that contains a collection of articles resulted from the original research and finding of chemical technology, as well as a review for chemical science development. The journal is intended to publish the findings in the field of Organic Chemistry, inorganic, Analytical, Physical Chemistry, Biochemistry and other that characterized to solve the problems in the medical field, pharmaceutical, environmental and agricultural uses chemical approach. Publishing for the journal isconducted annually every six months.</p><p><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2528-0414">ISSN Print 2528-0414</a></p><p><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2528-0422">ISSN Online 2528-0422</a></p><p> </p><p><strong> Participants</strong></p><p>The writer for JKR allowed on the circles at home and abroad, covering researcher from Universities and Research Institute, and practitioners from industries such as the chemical industry, agriculture, health, food, pharmaceutical and so on</p><p> </p><p><strong>Scope </strong></p><p>Articles are arranged to reflect the authenticity of the work, such as research articles, reviews and short communications. The number of pages required not to exceed 12 pages or the equivalent of 4000-5000 words for research articles and reviews, and a maximum of 4 pages, equivalent to 2,000 words for short communications.</p><p>Scope for the JKR Journal must be linked in the chemistry field as an indentity of the journal. The Journal coverages some topics :</p><ol><li>Chemical study of natural materials and chemical material synthesis for medicinal materials, energy and the environment</li><li>Study of chemical processes in living cells such as isolation, purification and modification of biomolecules compound and application development</li><li>Chemical study of theory, design models using computational approaches chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations, as well as the study of environmental chemistry</li><li>Design, development and validation of analytical methods</li><li>Development of chemical technologies for solving problems in the fields of medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial and other</li></ol> en-US <p><span style="font-size: 1.17em;">COPYRIGHT NOTICE</span></p> <p align="justify">1. Copyright of this journal is possession of Editorial Board and Journal Manager, by the knowledge of author, whilst the moral right of the publication belongs to the author.</p> <p align="justify">2. Every publications (printed/electronic) are open access for educational purposes, research, and library. Other that the aims mentioned above, editorial board is not responsible for copyright violation.</p> <p align="justify">3. Before the article was published, the editor will ask for clarification to any author to make statements about the authenticity (originality) of the research, a statement that the article is not being published elsewhere, and to approve transfer of publishing rights of the author (copyright transfer).</p> <div> </div> jkr@fst.unair.ac.id (Satya Candra Wibawa Sakti) qurrota.ayuni@fst.unair.ac.id (Qurrota A'yuni) Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT AND ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF KEBIUL (Caesalpinia bonduc L.) SEED COAT AGAINST INHIBITION OF PROTEIN DENATURATION https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/31108 <p>Inflammation is a normal protective reaction against tissue damage caused by physical injury, harmful chemicals, and protein denaturation. Protein denaturation is a process in which proteins lose their tertiary structure and secondary structure due to foreign substances, external compounds, such as strong acids, strong bases, organic salts, organic solvents, and heating. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of the seed coat of <em>Kebiul</em> (<em>Caesalpinia bonduc L</em>.) by calculating the IC<sub>50</sub> value of protein denaturation in the sample. The results of the phytochemical test of the ethanol extract of <em>Kebiul</em> seeds contained flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, saponins, and tannins, while the ethyl acetate fraction only contained tannins and alkaloids. The results of the anti-inflammatory test showed that the highest percent inhibition value of sodium diclofenac, ethanol extract, and ethyl acetate fraction, respectively, at a concentration of 20 ppm was 84.8%; 84.1%; and 50%. The IC<sub>50</sub> values ​​of sodium diclofenac, ethanol extract, and ethyl acetate fraction were 5.4 μg/mL; 9.9 μg/mL; and 13.3 μg/mL, respectively. The three samples had percent inhibition values exceeding 20% which indicated that all three can be used as an anti-inflammatory.</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Keywords</em><em>: </em><em>anti-inflammatory, protein denaturation, Caesalpinia bonduc L.</em></p> Dwi Fitriyani, Raden Fatahillah Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/31108 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PURIFICATION OF ETHANOL BY CONTINUOUS ADSORPTION METHOD USING ZEOLITE 3A AND CALCIUM OXIDE https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35682 <p>The depletion of oil reserves and the increasing need for fuel have become a problem in the supply of energy sources. One of the efforts to maintain the availability of fuel is to use ethanol fuel grade as an alternative fuel. Continuous adsorption is one method that can purify ethanol up to a concentration of 99.5% (v/v). This study aims to increase the purity of ethanol using adsorbent zeolite 3A and calcium oxide (CaO) with a continuous adsorption method. The feed used is technical ethanol with a concentration of 96% (v/v). The equipment used is a continuous adsorption apparatus with a fixed bed column. Parameters measured during the process were ethanol concentration, feed flow rate, temperature, and pressure. Variations carried out were variations in feed flow rate (5 mL/min, 12 mL/min, and 18 mL/min) and the type of adsorbent (zeolite 3A and CaO). The best continuous adsorption process at 5 mL/min flow rate using zeolite 3A adsorbent with the ethanol product concentration rated up to 99.54% on pycnometer analysis and 99.33% on GC-MS analysis. While using CaO adsorbent, the best results were obtained at 5 ml/min rate, with the highest ethanol product concentration of 99.54% in the pycnometer and 99.33% on GC-MS.</p> Mukhtar Anas Ibrahim, Muhammad Hafizh Musyaffa, Heriyanto, Haryadi Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35682 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE EFFECT OF SULFURIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON NICKEL RECOVERY FROM LATERITE ORE BY USING ATMOSPHERIC ACID LEACHING METHOD https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35712 <p>The processing of laterite ore by pyrometallurgy requires high temperatures whereas the Atmospheric Acid Leaching (AAL) method can be performed below 100 ℃ although its nickel recovery is inconsistent. This research aims to determine the effect of sulfuric acid concentration on nickel recovery and to determine nickel recovery after extract purification by precipitation of non-nickel metals. AAL was performed with an operating temperature of 95 °C, an operating time of 5 hours, an ore-to-solvent ratio of 0.05 g/ml, a particle size of ± 200 mesh, and sulfuric acid concentration variation of 0.2–1 M. Iron precipitation was completed with a pH variation of 0.5–3.8 by the addition of ammonia. The result showed that the concentration of sulfuric acid increased nickel recovery. The nickel recovery reached 96.43% at a concentration of sulfuric acid of 1 M. Furthermore, after extract purification, nickel recovery reached 50.61%, which was achieved at an optimum pH of 3.2.</p> Althafa Muntaqin, Lutfiah Rahmasari, Ninik Lintang Edi Wahyuni, Rony Pasonang Sihombing Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35712 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 UTILIZATION OF ANTHOCYANIN IN EDIBLE FILM AS COCONUT MILK FRESHNESS INDICATOR https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35706 <p>Technology in smart packaging continues to evolve, one of which is packages equipped with food freshness indicators to monitor food safety and quality. These indicators can be formed by immobilizing anthocyanin into edible film and then changing its color to pH changes. The research aims to determine the immobilization time, test the color stability of the edible film indicator to temperature changes, determine the characterizations of the edible film indicator based on the %relative standard deviation (%RSD) value, and apply the edible film indicators as coconut milk freshness indicators. The best immobilization time was in the 90th minute with %RSD=0%. The edible film indicators did not change color from 10 to 50°C with %RSD=0%. The characterizations of edible film indicators on pH 6, 7, 8, and 10 had response times of 6.68 minutes; 9.49 minutes; 3.57 minutes; and 4.37 minutes; periods of 14 days, 13 days, 14 days, and 16 days; and good reproducibility at pH 6 and 10 and not good at pH 7 and 8. Overall, based on anthocyanin color changes, an edible film indicator can be used as a freshness indicator in coconut milk but cannot indicate the pH value of coconut milk.</p> Utary Nur Rachmani Fauzan, Astrinida Rizkina Dwi Pancani, Fitria Yulistiani, Nancy Siti Djenar Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35706 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE UTILIZATION OF BLOTONG, MOLASSES, BRAN, AND COCONUT HUSK INTO COMPOST USING MOL OF STALE RICE AND Trichoderma sp. https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35714 <p>Compost is a solution for dealing with organic waste. Compost with organic material must be mixed according to its elemental composition. Protein and potassium are obtained from bran and coconut husk. <em>Blotong</em> contains phosphorus (P), while molasses contains total N and K<sub>2</sub>O. Local Microorganisms (MOL) of stale rice is an activator to increase the microbiological decomposition of organic matter and contains <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus cereus, and Aspergillus</em> sp. The addition of <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. can speed up the composting process. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of adding <em>Blotong</em> and bran on the quality of compost, to obtain the most effective composition of <em>Blotong</em>, molasses, bran, and coconut husk for composting using MOL activator of stale rice and <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. according to SNI 7763:2018, and to determine the most effective composting time. The ratio of <em>Blotong</em>, coconut husk, bran, and molasses for the three variations were 56:10:30:4; 66:10:20:4; and 76:10:10:4 in percent as much as 6 kg calculated with Takakura method. The result of the study showed the three variations had fulfilled SNI 7763:2018 in 18 days, with the most effective composition is the 3<sup>rd</sup> variation.</p> Hilda Fitria Nurul Huda, Putri Fakhirah Ramadhani, Endang Kusumawati, Mukhtar Ghozali Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35714 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SEA GRAPE (Caulerpa racemose) EXTRACT AS HAND CREAM AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TEST https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35889 <p><a name="_Toc501601397"></a><em>Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa)</em> is a seaweed containing folic acid, thiamine, ascorbic acid, and phenol as secondary metabolites that function as antioxidants. This study aims to formulate a hand moisturizing cream containing<em> C. racemosa</em> extract and evaluate the quality of the cream preparation. The manufacture of hand cream from <em>C. racemosa extract</em> was carried out in several stages, namely <em>C. racemosa</em> extraction, antioxidant testing, formulation of cream preparations, and evaluation. Evaluation of hand cream preparations of <em>C. racemosa</em> extract included organoleptic tests, homogeneity, pH measurement, viscosity, spreadability, and adhesion. The yield of <em>C. racemosa</em> from the extract was 33%. The IC<sub>50</sub> of the <em>C. racemosa</em> extract was 159.8 ppm. The results of the organoleptic test of hand cream preparations showed physical characteristics in terms of pH, viscosity, homogeneity, dispersibility, and adhesion following the requirements of cosmetic preparations from the Directorate General of BPOM.</p> Septilina Melati Sirait, Tita Rosita, Lintannisa Rahmatia Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35889 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 MOLECULAR DOCKING COMPOUNDS IN METHANOL EXTRACT OF MANGO LEAVES (Mangifera indica L.) AS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENT https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35950 <p>Previous studies have shown that mango has anti-inflammatory properties. Anti-inflammatory drugs are compounds or medicines used to treat diseases caused by inflammation. The most commonly used anti-inflammatory drug is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The drug works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). The purpose of this study was to determine the profile metabolites present in the methanol extract of mango leaves and their interaction with the COX enzyme. This study includes an analysis of the compounds contained in the methanol extract of mango leaves using LCMS / MS and molecular docking studies of these compounds. Compounds detected by MS include C<sub>26</sub>H<sub>24</sub>O<sub>14</sub>, C<sub>45</sub>H<sub>84</sub>O<sub>14</sub>, Khellol-β-D-glucoside, Mangiferin, and Nevadensin-5-β-D-glucoside. Analysis of docking result was based on ΔG and Ki and the binding interactions that occur. Compounds that are compatible with COX1 and COX2 are Khellol βD glucoside with G and Ki values of 7.49 kcal/mol and 3.23 µM and 8.32 kcal/mol and 0.7919 µM, respectively. Through the molecular docking process, it was confirmed that khellol β-D-glucoside may be activated as an anti-inflammatory agent.</p> <p> </p> Vina Juliana Anggraeni, Purwaniati Purwaniati, Wempi Budiana, Thoriq Nurdin Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35950 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EMULGEL OF Brucea javanica (L.) Merr SEED EXTRACTS https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/36010 <p>Anti-inflammatory drugs are needed to overcome excessive inflammatory reactions that can interfere with activities. The existence of side effects in the use of synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs causes the search for natural drugs with high therapeutic effects and low side effects to continue. Seeds of Makassar (<em>Brucea javanica</em> (L.) Merr) plant are known to have anti-inflammatory activity. Topical anti-inflammatory administration is currently being developed because it can minimize side effects compared to oral. This study aimed to formulate 96% ethanol extract of Makasar fruit seeds in the form of an emulgel and to determine the physical properties and anti-inflammatory activity of the emulgel in vitro. Makasar fruit seeds were extracted by sonication method using 96% ethanol solvent (3 x 35 minutes). The extract was then formulated into an emulgel preparation with an extract concentration of 1%. Emulgel was then tested for its physical properties and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro using protein denaturation inhibition method. The results showed that the physical properties of emulgel base (F0), extract emulgel (F1), and Na-diclofenac emulgel (F2) met the requirements for homogeneity, pH, adhesion, spreadability, and viscosity tests. F0, F1, and F2 had inhibition percentages of 3.74±1.58%,; 23.07±0.72%; and 33.49±0.29, respectively. According to one-way ANOVA statistical test, the three tested groups had significant differences.</p> Handa Muliasari, Diva Almira, Windah Anugrah Subaidah Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/36010 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROWAVE HEATING TREATMENT FOR REDUCING SUGAR RECOVERY https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/36189 <p>Microwave heating treatment was the one type of pretreatment process used in the manufacture bioethanol because it can be applied singly or in combination with other chemicals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of microwave heating on the pretreatment process using acid and alkaline solvents. The research was carried out in two stages, namely the preparation of raw materials and pretreatment with microwave. At the stage of preparation of raw materials, bagasse was dried for 2 days and then crushed to a size of 50 mesh to uniform the size of the raw materials. The raw materials that have been prepared are then subjected to a pretreatment process. The pretreatment process was carried out using a modified microwave with temperature settings and the addition of a stirrer. 5 grams of bagasse powder and 200 ml of a solution of H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> or NaOH (0.2 M, 0.4 M, and 1 M) were put into a round tool flask and then put into the microwave. Pretreatment was carried out at 180°C with time variables of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes. Then the solution was separated from the residual solid by filtration and the solution was neutralized with 1 M HCl. The results showed that the use of acidic and alkaline solvents, high concentrations of solvents can lead to smaller the acquisition of reducing sugars in the liquid product phase. The highest percentage of reducing sugar obtained is 0.559% when using an acid solvent with a concentration of 0.1 M for 20 minutes.</p> Yulia Tri Rahkadima, Medya Ayunda Fitri Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/36189 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF CATALYST PROPERTIES ON THE DEOXYGENATION REACTION OF VEGETABLE OIL AND MODEL COMPOUND TO PRODUCE DIESEL RANGE HYDROCARBON FUELS: A REVIEW https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35974 <p>The concern associated with the depletion of fossil fuel energy has opened up windows of opportunity for researchers to develop potential energy from renewable resources. The renewable green diesel with diesel range hydrocarbon structure has gained increasing popularity by removing oxygen molecule via direct or hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and indirect or deoxygenation (DO) reaction. The catalyst design is an important key to achieve the high quality of diesel range hydrocarbon fuels. The different catalyst properties effect to the distribution of deoxygenated liquid product, the catalytic activity and coke formation during the reaction process. The interaction between metal and support catalyst causes electron transfer to give the synestistic effect. The acidity and basicity play important role in C-C and C-O breaking bond in triglyceride and prevent the coke formation. The pore structure and pore size catalyst provide the accessibility of active sites alleviates the diffusion limitation of reactants/ products.</p> Reva Edra Nugraha, A. R. Yelvia Sunarti, Hellna Tehubijuluw, Zuhriah Mumtazah Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/35974 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000