Jurnal Kimia Riset https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR <p><strong>Jurnal Kimia Riset (</strong><strong>Scientific Journal of Chemical Research)</strong> is a scientific journal that contains a collection of articles resulted from the original research and finding of chemical technology, as well as a review for chemical science development. The journal is intended to publish the findings in the field of Organic Chemistry, Inorganic, Analytical, Physical Chemistry, Biochemistry and other that characterized to solve the problems in the medical field, pharmaceutical, environmental and agricultural uses chemical approach. Publishing for the journal isconducted annually every six months. Since the issue of Vol.7, No.1 (June 2022), JKR only accepts and publishes articles in English.</p> <p><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2528-0414">ISSN Print 2528-0414</a></p> <p><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2528-0422">ISSN Online 2528-0422</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong> Participants</strong></p> <p>The writer for JKR allowed on the circles at home and abroad, covering researcher from Universities and Research Institute, and practitioners from industries such as the chemical industry, agriculture, health, food, pharmaceutical and so on</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Scope </strong></p> <p>Articles are arranged to reflect the authenticity of the work, such as research articles, reviews and short communications. The number of pages required not to exceed 12 pages or the equivalent of 4000-5000 words for research articles and reviews, and a maximum of 4 pages, equivalent to 2,000 words for short communications.</p> <p>Scope for the JKR Journal must be linked in the chemistry field as an indentity of the journal. The Journal coverages some topics :</p> <ol> <li>Chemical study of natural materials and chemical material synthesis for medicinal materials, energy and the environment</li> <li>Study of chemical processes in living cells such as isolation, purification and modification of biomolecules compound and application development</li> <li>Chemical study of theory, design models using computational approaches chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations, as well as the study of environmental chemistry</li> <li>Design, development and validation of analytical methods</li> <li>Development of chemical technologies for solving problems in the fields of medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial and other</li> </ol> <div id="announcementsHome"><strong>Publisher</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>Jurnal Kimia Riset is published by:</div> <div>Universitas Airlangga</div> <div>Campus C, Mulyorejo, Surabaya Indonesia</div> <div>Phone/Fax: +62-315922427</div> <div>E-mail: jkr@fst.unair.ac.id</div> en-US <p><span style="font-size: 1.17em;">COPYRIGHT NOTICE</span></p> <p>1. By submitting the article to Jurnal Kimia Riset (JKR), the author has agreed to transfer some of the copyrights to the publisher of the research chemistry journal, Universitas Airlangga, indicated in the <a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/109gRRX5vYcrAEDwyhJ9_U6VDYrKo8R9J/edit?usp=sharing&amp;ouid=107932705481274430416&amp;rtpof=true&amp;sd=true">Copyright Transfer Agreement</a>. <br />2. <strong>Authors still retain significant rights to use and share their own published articles for non-commercial purposes subject to <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution-NonComercial 4.0 International License</a></strong><br />3. All publications (printed/electronic) are open access for educational purposes, research, library, and other non-commercial purposes. Besides the purposes mentioned above, the editorial board is not responsible for copyright violations.</p> jkr@fst.unair.ac.id (Satya Candra Wibawa Sakti) jkr@fst.unair.ac.id (Qurrota A'yuni) Tue, 13 Jun 2023 15:59:31 +0700 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 EFFECT OF MICROWAVE IRRADIATION TIME TO DEACETYLATION PROCESS OF CHITIN FROM SHRIMP SHELLS https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/40222 <p>Microwaves have been used in various organic synthesis applications. The use of microwaves provides many advantages, including relatively short start-up and heating times, energy efficiency and process costs, easy and precise process control, selective heating, better final product quality, and improved dry material quality. Microwaves were used in this study to convert chitin into chitosan and to determine the effect of deacetylation time on the degree of deacetylation of chitosan, which was in accordance with the Indonesian National Standard (SNI 7949:2013). The chitin deacetylation process was carried out by varying the heating time to 5, 7, 11, and 15 minutes with a power of 350 W. Two grams of chitin were mixed with 40 mL of 70% NaOH solution in a beaker. The mixture was put in a microwave at a constant temperature of 70 °C. Chitosan was washed until neutral and then dried in an oven. The degree of deacetylation (DD) was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that A deacetylation degree of 79.96% was achieved at a reaction time of 15 min. The water content of chitosan was determined to be 9.15%.</p> Arief Adhiksana, Wahyudi Wahyudi, Zainal Arifin, Muh Irwan Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/40222 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0700 PALM KERNEL SHELL ASH: THE EFFECT OF WEIGHT AND STIRRING DURATION ON WASTE PALM COOKING OIL QUALITY https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/40817 <p>This study aims to investigate the effect of variations Palm Kernel Shell Ash (PKSA) in weight and stirring duration on the quality of waste palm cooking oil (WPCO). PKSA is waste from the use of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) as fuel in palm oil factories. The method used in this study is a laboratory experiment with variations in the weight of PKSA and variations in stirring duration to improve WPCO quality. PKSA was characterized using XRF, FTIR, and XRD. The parameters of WPCO analyzed were color, water content, and free fatty acid (FFA). The standard used for comparison was the SNI for palm cooking oil 7709-2019. The results showed that the treatment category of S3, where PKSA was 20 g and stirring duration was 90 min, decreased the parameter value of WPCO according to SNI requirements. The improved quality of WPCO can be used for various purposes, including biodiesel, fertilizer and poultry feed.</p> Lidya Novita, Yuliana Arsil, Iswadi Idris Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/40817 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0700 COMPARISON PROCESS OF SOLVENT-FREE MICROWAVE EXTRACTION AND MICROWAVE HYDRO-DISTILLATION METHODS IN ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION FROM CABBAGE ROSES FLOWER (Rose × centifolia) https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/40928 <p>Indonesia has many diverse natural resources that still cannot be utilized optimally such as the extraction of essential oil from Cabbage Roses flowers (<em>Rose ×</em><em> c</em><em>entifolia</em>). This study compares the extraction amendments, extraction time, and essential oil composition of fresh rose flowers obtained by the Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) method to those obtained using the Microwave Hydro-Distillation (MHD) extraction method. Optimum conditions using the same amount of raw material in this study for the MHD method optimum conditions of operation: time of 90 minutes; the ratio of 1 g/mL; the power of 450 W, obtained a yield of 0.152% and SFME method optimum conditions of operation: time of 90 minutes, ratio 0.2 g/mL; power 450 W, obtained a yield of 0.358%. Electricity consumption to obtain 1 g of rose essential oil extracted using the MHD method is 4.087 kWh, while for the SFME method, it is 1.073 kWh. So it can also be said that the MHD method requires electricity consumption which is 3.8 times higher when compared to the SFME method.</p> Syah Sultan Ali Muzakhar, Lutfi Rizki Fauzi, Ditta Kharisma Yollanda Putri Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/40928 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0700 THE FABRICATION OF TEST STRIP FOR SIBUTRAMINE HCl DETECTION IN SLIMMING TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINE https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/41110 <p>The development of an optical sensor-based test strip for the detection sibutramine HCl adulteration in traditional herbal products has been studied. The medium of the test strip was cellulosic paper immobilized with Dragendorff’s reagent and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the precursor using the sol-gel method. The presence of sibutramine HCl changed the color of the test strip from yellow to orange-red. The change in color was scanned and converted to RGB values using the ImageJ software. The intensity of the RGB value correlates with the concentration of the analyte. The performance of the test strip had good linearity in the range of 0,1-1,5 mM of sibutramine HCl, and the correlation coefficient (R) was 0,9872. The limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision (% RSD), and percentage of accuracy were 0,2 mM, 0,8 mM, less than 5%, and approximately 80-90%, respectively. The strip test is low cost and simple. Thus, it can be used as an alternative to detect sibutramine HCl in traditional herbal products.</p> Robi'atul Andawiyah, Novrynda Eko Satriawan, Jumaati Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/41110 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0700 CHARACTERISTICS OF STYROFOAM WASTE-BASED MEMBRANE THROUGH VAPOR AND LIQUID-INDUCED PHASE INVERSION PROCESS https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/42957 <p>Polymeric membrane-based-Styrofoam waste in the form of a thin sheet was successfully prepared by a phase-inversion technique in different final solidification treatments, namely, immersion and evaporation. This study aims to identify the effects of different solidification processes on membrane properties such as hydrophobicity, pore configuration, porosity, and membrane temperature stability. Characterization was carried out using contact angle, SEM, FTIR, TGA, and porosity tests. The results showed that an increase in Styrofoam 18-30 wt.% in dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent decreases the hydrophobicity by 9.5%. The average contact angle of 62–80° indicated that the obtained membrane was prepared by immersion treatment. The membrane subjected to evaporation treatment was hydrophobic. Moreover, the microscopy image shows that the immersed membrane was denser than the evaporated membrane. This showed that a higher exchange rate between the solvent and non-solvent (water) produced a tight membrane than free evaporation in air. The polystyrene membrane from Styrofoam exhibited excellent temperature stability up to 350 °C. In addition, the mechanical strength was affected by employing different solidification processes. The obtained results were also successfully tabulated from a statistical point of view to validate the conclusions. The following information can provide basic knowledge for modifying membrane-based-Styrofoam to optimize zero-waste goals.</p> Silvana Dwi Nurherdiana, Bambang Wahyudi, Merry Jhoe Stefanny, Anita Karlina, Rachmad Ramadhan Yogaswara, Mohd Jumain Jalil, Hamzah Fansuri Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/42957 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0700 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO CHITOSAN-AVOCADO SEED STARCH AS EDIBLE FILMS https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/43394 <p>The use of plastic as food packaging tends to cause problems because it is difficult to decompose; therefore, it can pollute the environment. The development of biodegradable plastics is an alternative to this problem. Chitosan, a bioplastic, can be used as a packaging material but has poor barrier properties. A biodegradable film was made from a mixture of plasticizer, nano chitosan, and avocado seed starch. Nanochitosan synthesis was carried out using the UAE method for 2 h at an amplitude of 50% to produce 0.7 µm sized particles. Films were formed using the casting method, and characterization was performed, which included functional group, thickness, color, and antioxidant tests. The FTIR spectrum showed that the interaction between nanochitosan and avocado seed starch occurred physically, marked by a shift in the wavenumber of the amide carbonyl group from 1646.60 cm<sup>-1</sup> 1549.99 cm<sup>-1</sup>. The film thickness was 0.10–0.15 cm with a darker color as the volume of nanochitosan used increased. Antioxidant analysis revealed that the LC<sub>50</sub> value was between 150-250 ppm. The barrier properties of the resulting film against water vapor can inhibit strawberry fruit decay for 3–4 days at room temperature.</p> Suhartini, Imas Solihat, Foliatini, Sri Redjeki Setyawati, Nurdiani, Lilis Sulistiawaty, Muhammad Fadhil Khoirurrizal Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/43394 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0700 GREEN SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF ZnO/TiO2 NANOCOMPOSITE FROM Carica papaya LEAVES https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/43813 <p>This study aims to synthesize a ZnO/TiO<sub>2 </sub>(ZT) nanocomposite from <em>Carica papaya</em> leaf extract and evaluate its photocatalytic activity. The ZT nanocomposite was prepared using the sol-gel method with ZnO/TiO<sub>2</sub> 4-gram (ZT4) concentration variations and ZnO/TiO<sub>2</sub> 6-gram (ZT6). Methylene Blue (MB) was used as a model dye to test its photocatalytic properties. The trend for most activity is shown by ZT4 UV light 40 mg and ZT6 UV light (60 mg), which is 87%. Characterization of ZnO/TiO<sub>2</sub> (ZT) nanocomposite using FTIR and XRD The ZT4 nanocomposite had an average crystallite size of approximately 12 nm and crystallinity percentage of 92%, whereas the ZT6 nanocomposite had an average crystallite size of approximately 6 nm and crystallinity percentage of 97%. FTIR resulted in some group C=C stretching alkene, C-H stretching vibrations of an aromatic aldehyde, and O-H stretching of alcohols and Zn-Ti-O in the fingerprint region 393.48 cm<sup>-1</sup> to 987.55 cm<sup>-1</sup> for ZT4 and in the fingerprint region 401.19 cm<sup>-1 </sup>to 864.11 cm<sup>-1</sup> for ZT6.</p> Safira Salsabilla, Dina Kartika Maharani Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/43813 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0700 SCREENING OF PIROXICAM SELF-NANOEMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SNEDDS) USING FRACTIONAL FACTORIAL DESIGN https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/43803 <p>Piroxicam belongs to BCS class II and has low solubility. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) are considered a potential approach for increasing the solubility and release of piroxicam. This study aimed to select the components and component ratios of piroxicam SNEDDS using fractional factorial design 2<sup>6-2</sup> (FFD). The variables used in the DFT development of piroxicam SNEDDS are the type and concentration of oil (triacetin and oleic acid), surfactant (kolliphor EL and Tween 60), and co-surfactants (Transcutol and PEG 400). The FFD results showed 16 runs with different proportions of the piroxicam SNEDDS components, which were then characterized by critical parameters including emulsification time, %transmittance, droplet size, and drug loading. The components and component ratios of the PKM SNEDDS were determined using single-factor plot analysis. The results showed that triacetin (oil), kolliphor EL (surfactant), Transcutol (co-surfactant) had the greatest contribution to the formation of piroxicam SNEDDS with an oil ratio range of 11.11–28.57%, surfactant 44.44–77.78%, co-surfactant 11.11–44.44 %.</p> Septiawan Adi Nugroho, Ilham Kuncahyo, Dian Marlina Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/43803 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0700 ISOLATION AND STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITE COMPOUNDS FROM Curcuma aeruginosa https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/44073 <p>Black turmeric (<em>Curcuma aeruginosa</em>) is Indonesian medicinal plant belonging to the <em>Zingeberaceae </em>family, mostly found on Java. This study aimed to determine the new molecular structures of the compounds isolated from black turmeric originating from Indonesia. Isolation of the secondary metabolite compounds was initiated by solid-liquid extraction using the maceration method with ethanol solvent, followed by liquid-liquid extraction using the partition method with <em>n-</em>hexane and dichloromethane as solvents. Separation and purification were carried out using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) and gravity column chromatography (GCC). The isolated compounds were characterized using spectroscopic methods, including UV-Vis, IR, and NMR spectroscopy. The isolation resulted in three sesquiterpenoid compounds, <em>(E)-7-isopropyl-4,10-dimethylcyclodec-10-ene-5,8-dione</em> (<em>curdione</em>), <em>(1R,10R)-Epoxy-(-)-1,10-dihydrocurdione</em>, and <em>zedoalactone B, </em>together with two common terpenes, <em>ethyl tetradecanoate</em> and <em>1-hexadecene</em>.</p> Alsya Firdausi Nuzula, Alfinda Novi Kristanti, Nanik Siti Aminah, Yoshiaki Takaya, Marisa Nur Sahadatin, Andika Pramudya Wardana Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/44073 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0700 EFFECT OF AMMONIA-ETHANOL MOLE RATIO ON THE SILICA NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIZED FOR RHODAMINE B DYES ADSORPTION https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/44400 <p>Various ammonia-ethanol mole ratios were successfully used for the synthesis of silica nanoparticles for rhodamine B adsorption. This study aims to determine the characteristics of the adsorbent at different ammonia-ethanol mole ratios, maximum adsorption at pH, and contact time. Several steps, including extraction of Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub> from rice husk ash, synthesis of adsorbents with ammonia-ethanol mole ratios (14:1, 21:1, 28:1, and 42:1), and their characterization. The parameters studied in the adsorbent include the functional groups, particle size, maximum pH, and rate constant adsorption. The FTIR results showed that all adsorbents had functional groups, indicating the presence of silica. The results suggest that the optimum mole ratio of NS 14:1 particles has a size of 39.82 nm. The optimum adsorption of rhodamine B by NS 14:1 occurred at a pH 3 of 0.00419 mmol.g<sup>-1</sup> and a contact time of 40 min. The rate constant of adsorption by NS 14:1 was 102.42 g.mmol<sup>-1</sup>.min<sup>-1</sup> followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model.</p> Yayuk Puji Lestari, Amaria Amaria Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kimia Riset https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JKR/article/view/44400 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0700