Non-pharmacological Therapy for the Elderly to Prevent Dementia through Cognitive Stimulation Therapy: A Systematic Review

Martha Lowrani Siagian, Retno Indarwati, Pudji Lestari

Abstract views = 352 times | downloads = 275 times


Introduction: Dementia is the most prevalent disease in older people and it has become the largest global public health priority. Not only does it cause a progressive loss of independent functioning, a decline in the cognition of people with dementia and family restlessness but it also leads to an enormous social and economic burden. The aim of this study was to describe the non-pharmacological therapy that is commonly used and to show the significantly effect that it has in terms of preventing cognitive decline in the elderly with dementia.

Methods: The literature review approach was used with a cross-sectional framework. Data was taken using a checklist and observations that were modified from the key words used to search Scopus databases. The 20 final articles were published from 2010 to 2019. The data was analyzed through a comparative study

Results: There are several interventions based on cognitive stimulation therapy including clock-drawing, board games, story-telling, musical therapy, bright light therapy, aromatherapy, touch therapy, gardening,  brain gym, modality therapy etc. From the study, it was found that cognitive stimulation therapy is suitable in all conditions, is easy to implemented and it significantly improved the cognitive and executive functioning of the elderly with dementia.

Conclusion: Nowadays, most studies concern alternative approaches that are non-invasive, cost-effective, safe and easy to implement. Cognitive stimulation therapy can be the best choice. It is expected that further research is needed to find other tools for scoring the intervention that is most suitable for all.


cognitive stimulation therapy; prevent dementia; elderly; non-pharmacological therapy

Full Text:



Aguirre, E., Spector, A., & Orrell, M. (2014). Guidelines for adapting cognitive stimulation therapy to other cultures. 1003–1008.

Article, R. (2018). Cognitive Therapy for Dementia Patients : A Systematic Review. 1–26.

Cecilia, M. R., Giacomo, D. Di, & Vittorini, P. (2015). Influence of Gaming Activities on Cognitive Performances. 67–72.

Ching-teng, Y. (2019). Social Work in Health Care Effect of board game activities on cognitive function improvement among older adults in adult day care centers. Social Work in Health Care, 0(0), 1–14.

Dartigues, J. F., Foubert-samier, A., Goff, M. Le, Viltard, M., Amieva, H., Orgogozo, J. M., … Helmer, C. (2013). Playing board games , cognitive decline and dementia : a French population-based cohort study. 1–8.

Farina, E., Critelli, R., Villanelli, F., Fioravanti, R., Mantovani, F., & Sardini, L. (1949). M ULTIDIMENSIONAL S TIMULATION T HERAPY : T HE P RACTICAL P ROTOCOL. 3(1).

Filipa, D., Cardoso, B., & Rosa, A. I. (2014). The Effect of Cognitive Stimulation on Nursing Home Elders : A Randomized Controlled Trial. 157–166.

Haeger, A., Costa, A. S., Schulz, J. B., & Reetz, K. (2019). NeuroImage : Clinical Cerebral changes improved by physical activity during cognitive decline : A systematic review on MRI studies. NeuroImage: Clinical, 23(March), 101933.

Iizuka, A., Suzuki, H., Ogawa, S., Kobayashi-cuya, K. E., Kobayashi, M., Takebayashi, T., & Fujiwara, Y. (2019). Can cognitive leisure activity prevent cognitive decline in older adults ? A systematic review of intervention studies. 1–14.

Jacobi, N., Donovan, H., Orrell, M., Stott, J., & Spector, A. (2014). Effectiveness of weekly cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia and the additional impact of enhancing cognitive stimulation therapy with a carer training program. 2143–2151.

Lam, L. C., Chan, W. C., Leung, T., & Fung, A. W. (2015). Would Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment Adhere to and Benefit from a Structured Lifestyle Activity Intervention to Enhance Cognition ?: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. 1–18.

Matyas, N., Aschenberger, F. K., Wagner, G., Teufer, B., Auer, S., Gisinger, C., … Klerings, I. (2019). Continuing education for the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer ’ s-type dementia : a systematic review and overview of systematic reviews. 1–10.

Mcdermott, O., Charlesworth, G., Hogervorst, E., Stoner, C., Moniz-cook, E., Spector, A., … Moniz-cook, E. (2018). Psychosocial interventions for people with dementia : a synthesis of systematic reviews. 7863.

Millán-calenti, J. C., Lorenzo-lópez, L., Alonso-búa, B., Labra, C. De, González-abraldes, I., & Maseda, A. (2016). Optimal nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer ’ s disease : challenges and solutions.

Post, M. (2014). Definitions of quality of life: what has happened and how to move on. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 20(3), 167–180.

Reichman, W. E., Fiocco, A. J., & Rose, N. S. (n.d.). Exercising the brain to avoid cognitive decline : examining the evidence.

Review, P. (2016). Meaningful activities for improving the wellbeing of people with dementia : beyond mere pleasure to meeting fundamental psychological needs. 136(2), 99–108.

SJ, Wayne, romero rm baumgart. (2018). Application and Interpretation of Functional Outcome Measures for Testing Individuals With Cognitive Impairment. 34(1), 13–35.

Wang, H., Xu, W., & Pei, J. (2012). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Leisure activities , cognition and dementia ☆. BBA - Molecular Basis of Disease, 1822(3), 482–491.

Wong, G. H. Y., Ng, C. K. M., Lai, C. K. Y., Lee, M. N. Y., Lum, T. Y. S., Jiang, N., … Wu, J. Y. M. (2015). Development of Six Arts , a Culturally Appropriate Multimodal Nonpharmacological Intervention in Dementia. 55(5), 865–874.

Young, D. K., Ng, P. Y., Kwok, T., Ho, F., Cheng, D., Mak, V., … Kwok, T. (2018). The effects of an expanded cognitive stimulation therapy model on the improvement of cognitive ability of elderly with mild stage Dementia living in a community — a randomized waitlist controlled trial. 7863(May).

Yusra, A. (2011). Hubungan antara dukungan keluarga dengan kualitas hidup pasien diabetes mellitus tipe 2 di poliklinik penyakit dalam rumah sakit umum pusat fatmawati Jakarta. Tesis.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Ners

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This journal is indexed by:





This journal is published by:


          Faculty of Nursing Universitas Airlangga in Collaboration with Indonesian National Nurses Association


Creative Commons License

This journal (p-ISSN:1858-3598; e-ISSN:2502-5791) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License


Current Stats

Previous Stats