Perception of Indonesian Nursing Students Regarding Caring Behavior and Teaching Characteristics of Their Clinical Nursing Instructors

Madiha Mukhtar, Nursalam Nursalam, Ninuk Dian Kurniawati

Abstract views = 1579 times | downloads = 1006 times


Student’s learning and performance reflects the professional attitude, behavior, ethics and standards of their instructors. The aim of this study is to analyse the perception of Indonesian Nursing students regarding caring behavior and teaching characteristics of their CNIs. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, 149 Professional Nursing students from Regular program (Baccalaureate) and Post diploma BSN and 15 Clinical Nursing Instructors were recruited from nursing faculty of public university located in Surabaya Indonesia. Data were collected by questionnaire and FGD was conducted to explore detailed information. In descriptive analysis: 6 % students perceived the caring behavior of their clinical instructors as low, 52.3% responds it as enough and 41.6 % considered it good. Teaching characteristics of CNI; 2.7% low, 26.8 as enough and 70.5 % good as perceived by their students. Data collected from students was analysed by using logistic regression test. Professional commitment with (P-value .038), motivation (P-value .010) and clinical placement environment (P-value .002) in main category (significance value is < 0.05) shows influence on perception of Indonesian nursing students regarding caring behaviour and teaching characteristics of their CNIs. In focused group discussion students’ recommended to increase the number of visits in clinical area and emphasises on bed side clinical demonstration. It can be concluded that students’ characteristics does have influence on their perception regarding caring behavior and clinical setting environment influence their perception regarding teaching characteristics of their CNIs.


caring behavior; perception of nursing students; teaching characteristics; clinical nursing nnstructor

Full Text:



Alasmari, A. M. (2014). Respiratory Therapy Students' Perceptions of Effective Teaching Characteristics of Clinical Instructors at an Urban University.

Ali, W. G. (2012). Caring Behavior and Effective Teaching Characteristics of Clinical Nursing Instructors as Pereived by Their Students,3(7), 15-27, retrive on sep.2015 from index.php/JEP/ article/view/1845/29915.

American Nurses Association (ANA, 2001). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Washington, DC: American Nurses Association.

American Psychological Association (APA, 2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Retrived January, 2016, from

Anderson, Jennifer. Anne. (2014). Understanding Male Nursing Student Perceptions of the Influence of Gender: A Qualitative Case Study Approach of Students, Faculty, and Administration in a Pacific Northwest Nursing Program. /viewcontent.cgi?article=2935& context=open_access_etds

Arthur, D & Randle, J. (2007). The professional selfconcept of Nurses: A review of a literature from 92-06. Australian Journal of Advance Nursing, 24 (60-64).

Article, O. (2015). Academic training and clinical placement problems to achieve nursing competency, 3(1), 15–20.

Bagraim, J. J. (2003). The Dimensionality of Professional Commitment, 29(2), 6–9., Retrive on 15th Oct, 2015.

Beitz. J.M. and Wieland.D. (2005). Analyzing the teaching effectiveness of nursing faculty of full and part –time generic BsN, and RNBs nursing students, Jour. of Professional Nursing, 21(1); 32_45, mnstemps / 93/93-1428640720.pdf?t=1461429982.

Bjørk, T. Ida., Karin, Berntsen., Grethe, Brynildsen., and Margrete, Hestetun. (2014). Nursing students' perceptions of their clinical learning environment in placements outside traditional hospital settings. Journal of Clinical Nurse. 2014 Oct; 23(19-20):2958–2967.

Cook. (2005). Inviting Teaching Behaviors of Clinical Faculty and Nursing Students’ Anxiety. Journal of Nursing Education, 44(4), 156–162. RetrivedJanuary,2015 /78 76311_Inviting_Teaching_Behaviors_of_Clinic al_Faculty_and_Nursing_Students'_Anxiety

Core, T., Practices, P., From, E., & Watson, C. (2010). Core Concepts of Jean Watson ’ s Theory of Human Caring / Caring Science

Dahlke Sherry, Jennifer Baumbusch, Frances Affleck, Jae-Young Kwon, (2012). The Clinical Instructor Role in Nursing Education: A Structured Literature Review (PDF Download from: Nursing_Education_A_Structured_Literature_R eview [accessed May 7, 2016].

Edy Siswantoro. (2015). Pengembangan model perilaku caring mahasiswa berbasis kecerdasan emosional terhadap peningkatan kompetensi keperawatan. Faculty of nursing, Universitas Airlangga.

Fry, S. T.,Veatch, R. M. & Taylor, C. (2011). Case studies in nursing ethics (4th edi.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Gibson, James. I., (1987) Organisasi Perilaku , Strukture, Proses, Jakarta: Erlangga

Gould, D., and Fontenla, M., (2006). Commitment to nursing: results of a qualitative interview study, Journal of Nursing Management, 14, 213–221,

Hanson, K., & Stenvig, T., (2008). The good clinical nursing educator and the baccalaureate nursing clinical experience: Journal of Nursing Education, 47(1), 38-42. Retrieved on March 5, 2015, from Google Scholar

Hayajneh, F. (2011). Role model clinical instructor as perceived by Jordanian nursing students. Journal of Research in Nursing. 16: 23. The online version of this article can be found at: content/16/1/23

Hofler, L. (2008). Nursing Education and transition to the work environment: A synthesis of national reports. Journal of Nursing Education, 47 (5).

Hsiang-Chu Pai. (2013). Effect Of Caring Behavior on Disposition toward Critical Thinking of Nursing Students. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(6), p. 423-429

Jafaragaee, Fateme., Soroor, Parvizy., Neda, Mehrdad., and Forough, Rafii. (2012). Concept analysis of professional commitment in Iranian nurses. Iran Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Res. Nov-Dec :17(7):472-479.


Jaros, S. (2007). Meyer and Allen Model of Organizational Commitment : Measurement Issues, 7–26, 2009/08/Jaros-ICFAI-2007Meyer-and-Allen1.pdf.

Khouri, R. (2011). Impact of an educational program on nursing students ’ caring and self-perception in intensive clinical training in Jordan, 173–185, retrive on nov, 2015 from

Kube, M. L. (2010). The relationship of nursing faculty clinical teaching behaviors to student learning.

ProQuest Dissertations & Theses: ?id=ED515024 Full Text Database. (UMI No. 3398533).

Krueger, R. A., (1994). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (2nd Ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lu, KY., Chiou, SL., Chang, YY. (2000). A study of the professional commitment changes from nursing students to registered nurses. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Science. Jan 16(1):39-46. pubmed/10741015

Ma, F., Li, J., Liang, H., Bai, Y., & Song, J. (2014). Baccalaureate nursing Students ’ perspectives on learning about caring in China : a qualitative descriptive study. BMC Medical Education, 14(1), 1–9., retrive on 20th sep,2015, http:// 6/1472-6920-14-42.

Madhavanprabhakaran, G. K., Shukri, R. K., Hayudini, J., & Narayanan, S. K. (2013). Undergraduate Nursing Students ’Perception of Effective Clinical Instructor : Oman, 3(2), 38–44. 20130302.02

Meimanat, Hosseini., Tahereh, Ashk Torab., Mohammad,Hossein Taghdisi., and Safar, Ali. Esmaeili. Vardanjani. (2013). Study on Situational Influences Perceived in Nursing Discipline on Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study.

Morgan. (1997). Focus groups as qualitative research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks.

Morse. (2007). strategies of intraproject samling . Nursing research:A qualitative perspective (4th ed.).

Munir, S., Ramos, C. T., & Hudtohan, E. T. (2013). Benchmarking Nursing Education in Indonesia for Social Development and Global Competitiveness, 10(1), 51–65. Retrived January, 2016, from

Nilsson, EL. Kerstin., and Warrén, Stomberg. I. Margareta. (2008). Nursing students motivation toward their studies – a survey study. Bio Med Central Nursing, 7:6. cles/ 10.1186/1472-6955-7-6

Nursalam. (2007). Mangemen Keperawatan: Aplikasi dalam praktik Keperawatan Professional (edisi kedua). Jakarta: Salemba Madika

Nursalam. (2011). Managemen Keperawatan; Aplikasi dalam praktik keperawatan professional, ed 3. Jakarta:Salemba Medika

Nursalam. (2013). Metodologi Penelitian Ilmu Keperawatan,Pendekatan praktis (3rd Ed), p.128.

O'Connor, AB.( 2001). Clinical instructions and evaluation, London; Tones and Bartelt, pp.14_26.

Okoronkwo, I. L., Agbo, M. E., Okpala, P. U., & Ndu, A. C. (2013). Students ’ perception of effective clinical teaching and teacher behaviour, 63–70.

Polit & Beck, C. T. (2001). Caring with nursing education: A meta synthesis, Journal of Nursing Education, 40 (3), p.101-109.

Rivai, V., Mulyadi, D. (2010). Kepemimpinan dan Perilaku Organisasi. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada

Sabog, R. F. V, Caranto, L. C., & David, J. J. T. (2015). Effective Characteristics of a Clinical Instructor as Perceived by BSU Student Nurses, 5(1), 5–19., Retrive on 2nd Nov, 2015, 01.02.html.

Salimi, S., & Azimpour, A. (2013). Determinants of Nurses ’Caring Behaviors (DNCB): Preliminary Validation of a Scale, 2(4), 269–278. Retrived January,2016,from, pmc/ articles/ PMC 4134150/

Sarmiento, T. P., Laschinger, H. K. S., Iwasiw, C., & Laschinger, H. S. (2004). Nurse educators ’ workplace empowerment , burnout , and job satisfaction : testing Kanter ’ s theory.

Sharif, Farkhondeh., and Masoumi, Sara. (2005). A qualitative study of nursing student experiences of clinical practice. Bio Med Central Nursing. 2005;4:6. es/PMC1298307/

Susan K.Groove, Nancy Burns, J. R. G. (2013). The practice of nuursing research; Appraisal , Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence (7th ed.).

Swansburg, Kristen. (1993). Basics of Psycholoy (2nd ed.) p.65.

Swanson, K,M. (1991).Empirical Dvelopment Of a Middle Range Theory of Caring. Nursing Research, Vol 40, Number 3.

Swanson, K,M. (1993). Nursing as Informed Caring for the Well-Being of Others. Journal of Nursing Sholarship, 25(4), 352–357, Vol 5,Number 4.

Thomas. (2003). Handling anger in the teacher-student relationship. Nursing Education Perspectives, 24(1), 17–24.

Wade, G. H., & Kasper, N. (1996). Nursing Students ’ Perceptions of Instructor Caring : An Instrument Based on Watson’s Theory of Transpersonal Caring. Retrived January, 2016, from

Warrén, Stomberg. Margareta., and Nilsson, Kerstin. (2010). Nursing Students’ Self-Graded Motivation to Complete their Programme of Study. Open Nursing Journal. volume 4: 42–47. articles/ PMC3043268/

Wilkinson, S., (2004). Focus group research. In D. Silverman, Qualitative research: Theory, method, and practice (p. 177-199). Thousand Oaks.

Zamanzadeh, V., Valizadeh, L., Azimzadeh, R., Aminaie, N., & Yousefzadeh, S. (2014). First and Fourth- Year Student ’ s Perceptions about Importance of Nursing Care Behaviors : Socialization toward Caring, 3(2), 93–101. Retrived January, 2016, from, Http://


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Jurnal NERS

This journal is indexed by:





This journal is published by:


          Faculty of Nursing Universitas Airlangga in Collaboration with Indonesian National Nurses Association


Creative Commons License

This journal (p-ISSN:1858-3598; e-ISSN:2502-5791) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License


Current Stats

Previous Stats