Self-Care Training Improves the Attitudes and Skills of Caregivers for Children with Physical Disability

Warti Ningsih, Purwanta Purwanta, Sri Hartini

Abstract views = 2563 times | downloads = 1351 times


Introduction: The physical condition of a child with physical disabilities makes them dependent on others. Carers are the closest to children with physical disability and must have the ability to assist and teach children to do self-care activities. This study was aimed to determine the effect of self-care training on the knowledge, attitudes and skills of caregivers about the care of children with physical disability.

Methods: The experiment was pre-experimental with one group pre-test-post-test design. The study was conducted on 23 caregivers who experienced caring of children with physical disability. The research instruments are Knowledge and Attitude of Self Care on Children with Physical Disability Questionnaire and Observation Sheet of Self Care on Children with Physical Disability, which have tested the validity and reliability to measure knowledge and attitude. Skill observation uses a check list with the validity test of expert opinion. Training on self-care using lecture, audiovisual, practice and discussion methods was conducted in two sessions on different days with 120 minutes per session. Data analysis used Paired Sample T-Test with significance level <0.05.

Results: Self-care training significantly influenced caregivers’ attitude (p = 0.038) and skill (p = 0.002), but training has no effect on caregivers’ knowledge (p = 0.225).

Conclusions: Self-care training improved attitudes and skills of caregivers for children with physical disability, but did not affect caregivers’ knowledge.


self-care training; caregiver; children with physical disability; knowledge; attitude; skill

Full Text:



Aizpurua, A., Bajos, A.G. and Migueles, M. 2009. False Memories for a Robbery in Young and Older Adults. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, pp. 174-187. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1461.]

Barbotte, E.G. and Chau. F, 2011. Prevalence of Impairments, Disabilities, Handicaps and Quality of Life in the General Population: A Review of Recent Literature. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79 (11), p. 1047.

Bhinnety, M. 2008. Struktur dan proses memori. Buletin Psikologi, 16 (2), pp. 74-88. Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Chung, J., Evans, J., Lee, C., Lee, J., Rabbani, Y. and Roxborough, L. 2008. Effectiveness of adaptive seating on sitting posture and postural control in children with cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 20, pp. 303–317.

Dziubanek, G., Marchwinska, W.E., Piekut, A., Hajok, I., Bilewicz, W.T. and Kuraszewska, B. 2013. Environmental risk perception—a study of the awareness of families to threats in areas with increased health disorders in children. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 20(3), pp. 555-558.

Fickert, N.A. and Ross, D. 2012. Effectiveness of a Caregiver Education Program on Providing Oral Care to Individuals with Intellectual and Development Disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 50(3), pp. 219-232. DOI: 10.1352/1934-9556-50.3.219.

Heubner, C.E. and Milgrom, P. 2014. Evaluation of a parent-designed programme to support tooth brushing of infants and young children. International Journal of Dental Hygiene. DOI:10.1111/idh.12100

Kabel, A., Dimka, J. and Black, K.M. 2017. Clothing-related barriers experienced by people with mobility disabilities and impairments. Applied Ergonomics, 59, pp. 165-169.

Kling, A., Campbell, P.A. and Wilcox, J. 2010. Young Children With Physical Disabilities Caregiver Perspectives About Assistive Technology. Infant & Young Children. Wolters Kluwer Health. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 23(3), pp. 169–183.

Lehna, C., Janes, E.G., Rengers, S., Graviss, J., Scrivener, S.D., Knabel, S.T. and Myers, J.A. 2013. Impact of Children with Special Needs on Differences in Fire-Safety Education Priorities, Preferred Method of Education, and Parent Actions. Journal of Burn Care & Research. DOI: 10.1097/BCR.0b013e31828a480a.

McMahon, G. and Archer, A. 2010. 101 Coaching Strategies and Techniques. London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Noble, E. 2014. Using Prompts to Improve Toilet Training for Children with Physical Disabilities. [online] Available at: (Accessed: April 27, 2017).

Notoatmodjo. 1993. Pengantar Pendidikan Kesehatan dan Ilmu Perilaku Kesehatan. Andi Offset. Yogyakarta.

Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas). 2013. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian RI tahun [online] Available at: (Accessed: April 27, 2017 ).

Tristani, L.K., Gunter, R.B. and Tanna, S. 2017. Evaluating Internet-Based Information on Physical Activity for Children and Youth With Physical Disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 34, pp.55-71.

Unicef. 2014. Study of Parental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Related to Early Childhood Development. [online] Available at: (Accessed: April 27, 2017).

Vahdaninya, Z., Nakhaei, M., Nasiri, A. and Sharifzadeh, G. 2015. Training based on Orem’s model on knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy of mothers in preventing domestic accidents. Modern Care Journal, 12(3), pp.119-124.

WHO. 2015. Health Education. [online] Available at: (Accessed: April 27, 2017).

Widhiarso, W. 2005. Mengestimasi Reliabelitas. Fakultas Psikologi UGM. Yogyakarta.

YPAC. 2016. Laporan Akademik Tahun Surakarta: Yayasan Pembinaan Anak Cacat.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Ners

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This journal is indexed by:





This journal is published by:


          Faculty of Nursing Universitas Airlangga in Collaboration with Indonesian National Nurses Association


Creative Commons License

This journal (p-ISSN:1858-3598; e-ISSN:2502-5791) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License


Current Stats

Previous Stats