Community Based Pasung Release on Schizophrenia

Titik Dyah Agustini, Azimatul Karimah, Ivana Sajogo

Abstract views = 453 times | downloads = 345 times


Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder, persistent, chronic, easy to relapse. Schizophrenics at risk of becoming victims of pasung. Confinement is any form of limitation of movement of people with mental illness by families and/or communities. The government has launched the program to end pasung, but the incidence of pasung in the community is still quite high. Liberation of community-based pasung includes prevention of pasung, handling of pasung and rehabilitation of post-pasung. The method of community-based pasung release at the rehabilitation stage that is widely used is Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and has been proven to reduce recurrence and hospitalization rates in schizophrenics so as to reduce the incidence of pasung and prevent re-pasung.


community base, release from pasung, schizophrenia

Full Text:



A. Heeramun-Aubeeluck et al., “Effect of time and duration of untreated psychosis on cognitive and social functioning in Chinese patients with first-episode schizophrenia: A 1-year study,” Nord. J. Psychiatry, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 254–261, 2015, doi: 10.3109/08039488.2014.929738.

E. Bora, B. Yalincetin, B. B. Akdede, and K. Alptekin, “Duration of untreated psychosis and neurocognition in first-episode psychosis: A meta-analysis,” Schizophr. Res., vol. 193, pp. 3–10, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.06.021.

M. Aas, P. Dazzan, V. Mondelli, I. Melle, R. M. Murray, and C. M. Pariante, “A systematic review of cognitive function in first-episode psychosis, including a discussion on childhood trauma, stress, and inflammation,” Front. Psychiatry, vol. 4, no. JAN, pp. 1–13, 2014, doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00182.

M. S. Ran et al., “Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and outcome of people with schizophrenia in rural China: 14-year follow-up study,” Psychiatry Res., vol. 267, no. June, pp. 340–345, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.06.043.

S. M. Stahl, Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology. Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications. Fourth Edition., 4th ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic And Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition, vol. 17, no. 7. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013.

B. Sadock, V. A. Sadock, and R. Pedro, Kaplan & Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer, 2017.

“Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018.” Balitbang Kemenkes RI, Jakarta, 2018.

M. H. Machfoed, M. Hamdan, and A. Machin, Buku Ajar Ilmu Penyakit Saraf. Surabaya: Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Saraf Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Airlangga. Airlangga University Press, 2011.

S. K. Kar and M. Jain, “Current understandings about cognition and the neurobiological correlates in schizophrenia,” J. Neurosci. Rural Pract., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 412–418, 2016, doi: 10.4103/0976-3147.176185.

S. A. Villeda et al., “Young blood reverses age-related impairments in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in mice,” Nat. Med., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 659–663, 2014, doi: 10.1038/nm.3569.

R. Anthony, “Ethics,” in Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior, J. Vonk and T. Shackelford, Eds. Springer, 2018.

Catherine, M. M. Amin, and E. Effendy, “The relationship between intelligence and cognitive function in schizophrenic,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 0–5, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/125/1/012184.

H. Takano, “Cognitive function and monoamine neurotransmission in schizophrenia: Evidence from positron emission tomography studies,” Front. Psychiatry, vol. 9, no. MAY, pp. 1–8, 2018, doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00228.

L. Volk, S. L. Chiu, K. Sharma, and R. L. Huganir, “Glutamate Synapses in Human Cognitive Disorders,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci., vol. 38, pp. 127–149, 2015, doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-071714-033821.

E. C. Porges et al., “Frontal Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Concentrations Are Associated With Cognitive Performance in Older Adults,” Biol. Psychiatry Cogn. Neurosci. Neuroimaging, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 38–44, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2016.06.004.

R. S. E. Keefe et al., “Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-controlled study of encenicline, an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, as a treatment for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 40, no. 13, pp. 3053–3060, 2015, doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.176.

G. Davies et al., “Genetic contributions to variation in general cognitive function: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the CHARGE consortium (N=53 949),” Mol. Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 183–192, 2015, doi: 10.1038/mp.2014.188.

S. J. Luck, B. Hahn, C. J. Leonard, and J. M. Gold, “The Hyperfocusing Hypothesis: A New Account of Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia,” Schizophr. Bull., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 991–1000, 2019, doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbz063.

World Psychiatric Association, Schizophrenia: Current science and clinical practice. Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

M. Y. Wang, N. F. Ho, M. Y. Sum, S. L. Collinson, and K. Sim, “Impact of duration of untreated psychosis and premorbid intelligence on cognitive functioning in patients with first-episode schizophrenia,” Schizophr. Res., vol. 175, no. 1–3, pp. 97–102, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2016.04.002.

J. Addington et al., “Duration of untreated psychosis in community treatment settings in the United States,” Psychiatr. Serv., vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 753–756, 2015, doi: 10.1176/

S. Ito et al., “Differential impacts of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) on cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia according to mode of onset,” Eur. Psychiatry, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 995–1001, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.08.004.

K. Allott et al., “Duration of untreated psychosis and neurocognitive functioning in first-episode psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Psychol. Med., vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1592–1607, 2018, doi: 10.1017/S0033291717003002.

A. Jablensky, T. F. McNeil, and V. A. Morgan, “Barbara Fish and a Short History of the Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis of Schizophrenia,” Schizophr. Bull., vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1158–1163, 2017, doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbx094.

P. H. Chou et al., “Duration of Untreated Psychosis and Brain Function during Verbal Fluency Testing in First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study,” Sci. Rep., vol. 5, no. December, pp. 1–9, 2015, doi: 10.1038/srep18069.

A. D. Kraft, M. Aschner, D. A. Cory-Slechta, S. D. Bilbo, W. M. Caudle, and S. L. Makris, “Unmasking silent neurotoxicity following developmental exposure to environmental toxicants,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 55. Elsevier Inc., pp. 38–44, May 01, 2016, doi: 10.1016/

Z. X. On, S. Cotton, J. Farhall, E. Killackey, and K. Allott, “Relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and neurocognition and social cognition in first-episode psychosis,” Schizophr. Res., vol. 176, no. 2–3, pp. 529–532, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2016.06.018.

B. R. Rund, “Does active psychosis cause neurobiological pathology? A critical review of the neurotoxicity hypothesis,” Psychol. Med., vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1577–1590, 2014, doi: 10.1017/S0033291713002341.

E. Bora, “Neurodevelopmental origin of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia,” vol. 45, pp. 1–9, 2015, doi: 10.1017/S0033291714001263.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Titik Dyah Agustini, Azimatul Karimah, Ivana Sajogo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 View JPS Stats




Jurnal Psikiatri Surabaya (e-ISSN: 2716-358X, p-ISSN: 2355-2409) is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.