Journal of Vocational Health Studies <p align="justify"><img style="margin-left: 16px; margin-righ=8px; margin-bottom: 16px;" src="" alt="" width="191" height="270" align="right" /><strong><img alt="" />Journal of Vocational Health Studies</strong>, with registered number <strong>ISSN </strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>2580-7161</strong></a> (Print) and<strong> ISSN</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>2580-717X</strong></a> (Online), is a scientific journal published by the Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga. Journal of Vocational Health Studies publishes scientific articles such as <strong>Original Research Articles, </strong><strong>Literature Reviews, and Case Studies</strong> related to various aspects of science in the fields of <strong>Radiology, Traditional Medicine, Medical Laboratory Technology, Occupational Health and Safety, Dental Laboratory Technique, and Physiotherapy.</strong> We welcome experts, practitioners, and academicians to submit their articles.</p> <p align="justify">All submitted manuscripts will go through the <strong>double-blind peer review</strong> and editorial review before being granted acceptance for publication. Submissions must be <strong>original work</strong> and<strong> never been previously published</strong>.</p> <p align="justify">The Journal of Vocational Health Studies has been accredited as a 2nd Grade Scientific Journal (Sinta-2) by the <strong>Ministry of Science, Research, Technology</strong> of Indonesia (RISTEKDIKTI RI), abstracted and displayed in DOAJ, Index Copernicus, Google Scholar, Neliti, Crossref, and <a href="">some indexing repository.</a></p> Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga en-US Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2580-7161 <ul><li>T<span>he authors agree to transfer the transfer copyright of the article to the Journal of Vocational Health Studies (JVHS) effective if and when the paper is accepted for publication.</span></li><li>Legal formal aspect of journal publication accessibility refers to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA), implies that publication can be used for non-commercial purposes in its original form.</li><li>Every publications (printed/electronic) are open access for educational purposes, research, and library. Other that the aims mentioned above, editorial board is not responsible for copyright violation.</li></ul><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify"><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p><p><span>Journal of Vocational Health Studies is licensed under a </span><a href="" rel="license" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a></p> SAFIRE STRENGTH OPTIMIZATION: EFFECT ON TISSUE CONTRAST AND PATHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BRAIN MSCT WITH NON-HEMORRHAGE STROKE (SNH) <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) is an Iterative Reconstruction algorithm that combines IR techniques that utilize raw data and image data iterations as parameters that underlie noise regularization in images in the reconstruction process to improve image quality. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Analyze the effect of variations in SAFIRE strength values on image contrast and pathological evaluation of CT scan brain with clinical Stroke Non-Hemorrhage (SNH). <strong>Method:</strong> This research is a quantitative analytic study with an experimental approach to analyze the effect of SAFIRE strength values on image contrast and pathological assessment on CT scan brain examination. <strong>Result:</strong> Statistical test results showed a significant difference (p-value &lt; 0.05) in all variations of SAFIRE strength, with the resulting Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) value increasing as the SAFIRE strength value used increased. The average CNR improvement was 18.4% on all SAFIRE strength values compared. This increase is affected by a linear decrease of the noise value from one SAFIRE strength value to another. Image contrast improvement also affects the pathological assessment of SNH due to the increased density differences in the hypodense lesion compared to the surrounding tissues. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The use of the SAFIRE strength variation significantly affects image contrast values and pathological assessment in the SNH brain MSCT examination.</em></p> I Putu Eka Juliantara Angel Lingkan Martoyo Made Sayang Pratista Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3 142 150 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I3.2024.142-150 BACTERIAL PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST AMONG DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS WITH GANGRENE IN SURABAYA <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Gangrene is a severe complication of damaged tissue that can occur in people with Diabetes Mellitus (DM), putting them at risk for bacterial infection. A pus culture can show diabetic gangrene patients' infecting bacteria. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Determine the prevalence of infection-causing bacteria and antibiotic sensitivity tests in diabetic gangrene patients at Haji Regional General Hospital, East Java Province, for January-December 2021. <strong>Method:</strong> The method used in this study is observational analytical cross-sectional, which is based on secondary data and is analyzed using the percentage formula and Chi-Square test. <strong>Result:</strong> The data obtained from 39 patients revealed 29 (74.4%) positive patients for bacterial infection. The Gram-negative bacteria was found to cause infection more frequently (72.41%) than the Gram-positive bacteria (27.59%). The prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria species most frequently from Escherichia coli (ESBL) 13.79% (4/29), Klebsiella pneumoniae 10.35% (3/29), Proteus mirabilis 10.35% (3/29). While the dominant Gram-positive bacteria a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 10.35% (3/29). The antibiotic sensitivity test showed that Gram-negative group were susceptible to ertapenem, meropenem, amikacin, gentamicin, and piperacillin tazobactam while resistant to ampicillin and cefazolin. The antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that the Gram-positive group was susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin, and tigecycline while resistant to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is important to screen the bacterial profile causing gangrene and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in DM patients in order to give proper treatment to DM patients.</em></p> Imro`atul Qona`ah Aliyah Siti Sundari Ratna Wahyuni Dwi Wahyu Indriati Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3 151 160 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I3.2024.151-160 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANOPHELES BREEDING PLACES IN DAHIAN TAMBUK VILLAGE, GUNUNG MAS DISTRICT, CENTRAL KALIMANTAN <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Malaria cases in Dahian Tambuk Village have been ranked first for four consecutive years in Gunung Mas District. <strong>Purpose:</strong> This study aims to describe the physical and chemical characteristics of Anopheles breeding places in Dahian Tambuk Village, Gunung Mas District. <strong>Method:</strong> It is a descriptive study using a survey method. The characteristics studied were Anopheles species, number, temperature, salinity, breeding sites, and density of larvae found in each breeding site. <strong>Result:</strong> Seven breeding places were found positive to contain Anopheles larvae, consisting of puddles, fish ponds, and sewers. The sewer was predominantly found. Physical characteristics of water showed a temperature ranging from 29.9 0C - 35 0C, pH levels between 5.35 - 6, and a salinity of 0 ppt, with a density level of 9 larvae/2 dippers. The species of Anopheles larvae found in all breeding sites was identified as Anopheles kochi. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Seven breeding sites found in the studied area consisted of puddles, fish ponds, and sewers, with physical characteristics that qualify for Anopheles larvae in general An. kochi was the only species of larvae found in all breeding sites.</em></p> Mouldy Tasya Zahrawana Dian Mutiasari Arini Ratnasari Arif Rahman Jabal Nopta Triawan M. Yusuf Ilham Kurniawan Marchelia Djajanto Mila Karmila Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3 161 165 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I3.2024.161-165 ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF TEMULAWAK (CURCUMA XANTHORRHIZA) EXTRACT GEL AS A CANDIDATE FOR WOUND HEALING <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>The complete treatment of chronic wounds remains a significant unmet medical need. To expedite the healing of chronic wounds, numerous studies have begun to utilize gels, including hydrogels or sol-gels, which incorporate a combination of antioxidant properties. Curcuma xanthorrhiza is known to contain polyphenolic compounds, which include flavonoids acting as an antioxidant. <strong>Purpose: </strong>Examine the potential of C. xanthorrhiza extract (CXE) gel as a candidate for wound-healing by measuring its antioxidant activity. <strong>Method: </strong>Three CXE gel formulas were prepared from different concentrations of CMC-Na (3, 4, and 5%). Each formula consisted of 5% CXE, 15% propylene Glycol, 10% Glycerin, 0.25% Methylparaben, and distilled water. The quality of the CXE gel was tested through homogeneity, spreadability, pH, and viscosity tests. The antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)-reducing activity assay in a gel formula that was close the standards. The measurement results were then used in the calculation of antioxidant activity to determine the IC</em>50 <em>value. <strong>Result: </strong>Formulas 1, 2, and 3 meet the requirements by yielding a homogeneous gel with a spreadability of 5.37 – 5.93 cm, a pH level of 5.87 – 6.10, and a viscosity of 8.800 – 9296.67 cps. The highest DPPH and ABTS percentages were 34.04% and 5.28%, respectively. The IC</em>50 <em>values of CXE gel in DPPH and ABTS were 1973.38 μg/mL and 700.65 μg/mL, respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The CXE 1, 2, and 3 gel formula meets the requirements and has the potential to be used as a wound healing therapy through its antioxidant properties.</em></p> Reghita Claudia Malau Sri Wahyuni Nasution Ali Napiah Nasution Wahyu Widowati Faradhina Salfa Nindya Hanna Sari Widya Kusuma Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3 166 174 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I3.2024.166-174 ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE DUE TO LEADS EXPOSURE FROM CONTAMINATED WATER <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Water quality can decrease due to population growth, domestic waste handling, climate, and human activities. Most of the people in Cimahi use well water for drinking and eating. However, using well water with high lead levels for consumption can adversely affect on the lead levels in the women’s blood of childbearing age. <strong>Purpose:</strong> This study investigates the relationship between lead levels in well water and the corresponding levels found in women’s blood in the Leuwigajah area of Cimahi. <strong>Method:</strong> Research samples were collected from both well water and the women’s blood of childbearing age (15 - 49 years) who consume well water for drinking and cooking. Subsequently, sample preparation was conducted, and the samples were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The Spearman correlation test was employed to analyze the data and establish any potential correlations. <strong>Result:</strong> The lead content in water ranged from 0.055 ppm to 0.089 ppm, exceeding the requirements for lead in clean water. Meanwhile, lead levels in the blood ranged from 1.5 ug/dL to 78.2 ug/dL, with 6.7% falling within the normal category, 40% in the tolerable category, 30% in the excess category, and 23.3% in the high category. The statistical results show a significant relationship between lead levels in well water and the blood, with a correlation value of 37.9%. The correlation value indicates a weak positive relationship. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is a relationship between lead levels in well water and women’s blood.</em></p> Perdina Nursidika Dedeh Kurnia Ganthina Sugihartina Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3 175 180 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I3.2024.175-180 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK DURATION, LENGTH OF WORK, AND SLEEP DURATION WITH WORK FATIGUE AMONG ONLINE TAXI BIKE DRIVERS IN GREATER JAKARTA <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background: </strong>Online taxi bike drivers were part of the road users vulnerable to accidents due to a demand that required online taxi bike drivers to work on the highway. Work duration, length of work, and sleep duration could cause the fatigue experienced by online taxi bike drivers. <strong>Purpose: </strong>See the strength of the relationship between work duration, length of work, sleep duration and work fatigue among online taxi bike drivers in Greater Jakarta. <strong>Method: </strong>This study was observational with a cross-sectional design involving as many as 52 online taxi bike drivers selected by non-probability sampling from online taxi bike drivers in Greater Jakarta from the end of November 2022 to early December 2022. <strong>Result: </strong>The majority of respondents (84.6%) were under 40 years old, male (92.3%), worked more than eight hours a day (55.8%), had experience as online taxi bike drivers for more than 3 years (73.1%), sleep duration less than 8 hours (78.8%), and there were 36 online taxi bike drivers (69.2%) reported experiencing high-very high levels of fatigue. The work duration is significantly related to work fatigue (p-value = 0.002). Also, there was no significant relationship between the length of work (p-value = 0.268) and sleep duration (p-value = 0.058) with work fatigue. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was a significant relationship between work duration and work fatigue, and there was no significant relationship between the length of work and sleep duration with work fatigue. The taxi drivers with work duration &gt;8 hours, length of work &gt;3 years, and sleep duration &lt;8 hours had higher risk factors for work fatigue. If a taxi bike driver works more than 8 hours daily, it is advisable to compensate with adequate rest.</em></p> Istianah Surury Aisya Alawiyah Fitri Anggraeni Vicky Abiansyah Nastiti Dyah Prastiwi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3 181 187 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I3.2024.181-187 EFFECT OF QUADRICEPS ISOMETRIC EXERCISE ON REDUCING PAIN IN ELDERLY COMMUNITIES WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background: </strong>It is necessary to make innovations that make it easier for osteoarthritis sufferers to do exercises independently at home. Patients can apply proper self-management, such as doing pain-reducing quadriceps muscle exercises. <strong>Purpose: </strong>This study aimed to analyze the effect of quadriceps isometrics on pain intensity in the elderly community with knee osteoarthritis. <strong>Method: </strong>This study uses a quasi-experimental design with pre and post-test control group design. The sample was selected using a consecutive sampling technique, which consisted of 30 older people divided into 15 older people for each intervention and control group. The intervention group sample was given a treatment of quadriceps isometric for weeks with a frequency of twice a week, and then the control group was given education. The analysis used is a statistical test paired sample T-test and an independent T-test. <strong>Result: </strong>The paired sample statistics obtained the average pain result in the pre-intervention category with a scale of 6.2, while after the intervention, it was 5.2with a p-value &lt; 0.05. In the paired sample statistics, the average pain result in the category before education was 7.28, while after education, it was 8.03 with a p-value &lt; 0.05. In the independent T-test for the intervention and control groups, the results obtained were a p-value of 0.039 &lt; 0.05. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was a significant difference between the average intervention and control groups of quadriceps isometric exercise in reducing pain intensity in elderly patients.</em></p> Rochman Basuki Novita Sari Dewi Dzaky Azmi Rizqulloh Satriya Pranata Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3 188 193 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I3.2024.188-193 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK DEMANDS AND SOCIAL SUPPORT ON WORK STRESS DURING THE PANDEMIC <p><strong><!-- ######## This is a comment ######## --></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Stress is the effect of competition and high professional demands in the workplace. The Occupational Safety and Health Agency (UPT Keselamatan Kerja) is a technical implementation unit with responsibilities and functions in occupational hygiene, health, and safety. The proliferation of COVID-19 in numerous regions has repercussions for all sectors of society, including agency employees. Those still employed are required to adjust to new conditions. <strong>Purpose: </strong>Analyse the effect of work demands and social support on work stress among UPT Keselamatan Kerja Surabaya employees during the pandemic. <strong>Method: </strong>The research was conducted on contract and permanent employees (civil servants), which were divided into three distinct work units: the Safety Training Section Corporate Hygiene and Occupational Safety, the Administration Section, the Testing and Inspection Section. This study employed a quantitative approach. The data were collected using observation. <strong>Result: </strong>The findings of the study indicated that: 1) UPT Keselamatan Kerja Surabaya employees fell into elevated work demands, 2) UPT Keselamatan Kerja Surabaya employees obtained a high level of social support, 3) Work demands and social support simultaneously affected employees’ work stress at UPT Keselamatan Kerja Surabaya. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Social support affected work stress among UPT Keselamatan Kerja Surabaya employees with a significance value of 0.004. Work demands and social support concurrently affected the stress experienced by UPT Keselamatan Kerja Surabaya employees.</em></p> Nisrina Tiara Sani Noeroel Widajati Afrian Eskartya Harjono Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3 194 199 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I3.2024.194-199 THE PREVALENCE, ISOLATION, AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF ENTEROCOCCUS SPECIES FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SAMPLES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Enterococcus is routinely considered a low-grade pathogen. The synergistic action of Enterococci with other bacteria increases the risk of infection. Enterococci are currently the next most common cause of healthcare-associated infections after E. coli. Greater understanding is needed regarding Enterococcus stress survival, virulence, and resistance patterns to assess the complexity of disease-causing Enterococcus. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Analyze the prevalence of Enterococcus and assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Enterococcus. <strong>Method:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed and carried out in the Department of Microbiology at Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, over a period of 3 months. Bacterial culture and sensitivity were the methods employed for microbiological examination. <strong>Result:</strong> A total of 558 bacterial strains were isolated, among which the growth of Enterococcus spp. was 27 (4.83%). The prevalence of Enterococcus spp. among different samples was 4.83%. The number of highly sensitive strains ranged from 66.66% to 77.77% for antibiotics, namely gentamycin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and meropenem. Moderately high sensitivity to levofloxacin (29.62%) and low sensitivity to doxycycline (14.81%) were also analyzed. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study recommends that antibiotics should be used after proper laboratory procedures are undertake, and it should be selected based on antimicrobial susceptibility tests.</em></p> Turin Afroz Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3 200 205 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I3.2024.200-205 Front Matter Vol. 7 No. 3 2024 <p>Front Matter Vol. 7 No. 3 2024</p> JVHS Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3 THE ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) ON MRI BRAIN EXAMINATION WITH CLINICAL ISCHEMIC STROKE <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in radiology is named automatic image interpretation of neuroimaging stroke. It takes a short time to minimize the patient's brain damage. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Determine the role of AI in ischemic brain stroke MRI examination and find out the advantages and disadvantages of applying AI to ischemic brain stroke MRI examination. <strong>Review</strong><strong>:</strong> It was a descriptive and qualitative study with a literature review approach. The selection of articles used the ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProQuest, PubMed, and Publish or Perish databases. The inclusion criteria included full articles, with the topic of AI on ischemic brain stroke MRI examinations published in the 2017 – 2022 range, articles published by English-language international journals with a classification of Q1 – Q3, and having DOI. Seven relevant pieces of article were obtained, then descriptive analysis was carried out by comparing and presenting the articles descriptively in tabular form. <strong>Result:</strong> The role of AI in MRI brain examination with clinical ischemic stroke, namely its role in automatic lesion segmentation, Time Since Stroke (TSS) classification, and infarct volume prediction. The advantages of AI included short image processing times and accurate results. The disadvantages of AI tended to decrease performance in small lesions, a large number of patients, limited data, and false positive results. The value of the Dice Score Coefficient (DSC) (0.53 – 0.86) was already high even though it had not reached 1 because it depended on the strength of the data used. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The role of AI in MRI imaging of ischemic brain stroke helps in the diagnosis and prognosis of ischemic stroke patients. AI in stroke neuroimaging has advantages in time effectiveness and disadvantages in data limitations.</em></p> Oktaviani Aulia WMS Emi Murniati Agustina Dwi Prastanti Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3 206 217 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I3.2024.206-217 Back Matter Vol. 7 No. 3 2024 <p>Back Matter Vol. 7 No. 3 2024</p> JVHS Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 3