Journal of Vocational Health Studies <p align="justify"><img style="margin-left: 16px; margin-righ=8px; margin-bottom: 16px;" src=",_ISSUE_31.jpg" alt="" height="270" align="right" /><strong><img alt="" />Journal of Vocational Health Studies</strong>, with registered number <strong>ISSN </strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>2580-7161</strong></a> (Print) and<strong> ISSN</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>2580-717X</strong></a> (Online), is a scientific journal published by Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga. Journal of Vocational Health Studies publishes scientific articles such as Case Studies, Literature Studies, and Research Reports related to various aspects of science in the field of <strong>Radiology, Traditional Medicine, Medicine Laboratory Technology, Occupational Health and Safety, Dental Laboratory Technique, and Physiotherapy.</strong> We welcome all of experts, practitioners, and academicians to submit their articles.</p> <p align="justify">All submitted manuscripts will go through the <strong>double-blind peer review</strong> and editorial review before being granted acceptance for publication. Submissions must be <strong>original work</strong> and <strong>have never been previously published</strong>.</p> <p align="justify">The Journal of Vocational Health Studies has been accredited as a 3rd Grade Scientific Journal (Sinta-3) by the <strong>Ministry of Science, Research, Technology</strong> of Indonesia (RISTEKDIKTI RI), abstracted and displayed in DOAJ, Index Copernicus, Google Scholar, Neliti, Crossref, and <a href="">some indexing repository.</a></p> Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga en-US Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2580-7161 <ul><li>T<span>he authors agree to transfer the transfer copyright of the article to the Journal of Vocational Health Studies (JVHS) effective if and when the paper is accepted for publication.</span></li><li>Legal formal aspect of journal publication accessibility refers to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA), implies that publication can be used for non-commercial purposes in its original form.</li><li>Every publications (printed/electronic) are open access for educational purposes, research, and library. Other that the aims mentioned above, editorial board is not responsible for copyright violation.</li></ul><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify"><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p><p><span>Journal of Vocational Health Studies is licensed under a </span><a href="" rel="license" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a></p> PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF DRAGONFRUIT, DATES AND KEFIR MIXTURES <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Some previous studies showed that either dragon fruit, dates, or kefir has antioxidant activity. Nevertheless, there has not been any study that showed the activity of the combination of those three elements. </em><strong><em>Purpose: </em></strong><em>Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to examine the best combination of dragon fruit, dates, and kefir as an antioxidant activity. </em><strong><em>Method: </em></strong><em>The combination variation includes: dragon fruit-dates, dragon fruit-kefir, kefir-dates, and dragon fruit-dates-kefir. Then, the antioxidant activity was tested using the DPPH assay. </em><strong><em>Result: </em></strong><em>The variation of dragon fruit and dates, the highest value of antioxidant activity was obtained from the combination of 10: 2 of dragon fruits: dates; that was 76.33 ± 0.27 mg/dL. The combination of dragon fruit and kefir, the highest value was obtained from the variation of 10: 4 of dragon fruit: kefir. For this variation, the antioxidant activity was 80.9 ± 0.4 mg/dL. The combination of kefir and dates, the highest value was obtained from the variation of 10: 3 of kefir: dates. The combination of dragon fruit, dates, and kefir, the highest value of antioxidant activity was obtained from the combination of 4: 10: 1 of dragon fruit: kefir: dates; that was 80.94 ± 0.4 mg/dL. </em><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>In summary, the highest antioxidant activity came from the combination variation of 4: 10: 1 of dragon fruit: kefir: dates.</em></p> Amalia Ajrina Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 3 133 138 10.20473/jvhs.V5.I3.2022.133-138 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MANGOSTEEN BARK FRACTION (GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L.) SALMONELLA TYPHI ATCC 13311 <p><strong><em><span lang="IN">Backgroun</span><span>d</span><span lang="IN">: </span></em></strong><em><span lang="EN">Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacterial infection which spreads via the faecal-oral route and has epidemic potential. Salmonella typhi is a Gram-negative bacterium in the Enterobacteriaceae family. Currently, the use of natural ingredients can be an alternative treatment for typhoid fever, one of which is the mangosteen stem skin (Garcinia mangostana L.). </span><strong><span lang="IN">Purpose: </span></strong><span>T</span><span lang="EN">o determine the antibacterial activity of mangosteen stem skin fraction against Salmonella typhi ATCC 13311. </span><strong><span lang="IN">Method:</span></strong><span lang="EN">The maceration method was selected using methanol solvent and fractionation by ECC using ethyl acetate and n-hexane as solvents. This study used five treatments (fraction with a concentration of 20%, 40%, 80%, chloramphenicol 30µg as a positive control, and DMSO as a negative control) which tested their antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi ATCC 13311 by disc diffusion. </span><strong><span lang="IN">Result: </span></strong><span lang="EN">The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction of mangosteen stem skin had the greatest average inhibition zone, </span><span lang="IN">that is </span><span lang="EN">13.86 ± 0.72 mm compared to the n-hexane fraction of mangosteen stem skin with an inhibition zone of 10.43 ± 0.73</span><span lang="IN"> mm</span><span lang="EN">. The data obtained were then analyzed with One-way ANOVA. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results obtained were p=0.000 (sig &lt;0.05), indicating that there was a significant difference between the ethyl acetate fraction and the n-hexane fraction with 20%, 60%, and 80% concentrations with positive control</span></em></p> Salmah Wilujeng Anggraini Susanti Erikania Vevi Maritha Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 3 139 145 10.20473/jvhs.V5.I3.2022.139-145 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DECOCTION OF RED BETEL LEAVES (PIPER CROCANTUM) AGAINST THE REDUCED SYMPTOMS OF FLUOR ALBUS IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS <p><em><strong>Background:</strong> Fluor albus is excessive fluid from vagina that is not menstruation. To reduce the symptoms of fluor albus, non-pharmacological treatment from the decoction water of red betel leaves (Piper crocantum) was used in the present study. These red betel leaves (Piper crocantum) contain alkaloids that the green betel leaves do not have, and the alkaloids play a role as an antimicrobial agent. Besides, the red betel leaves have antiseptic power that is twice higher than the green betel leaves. The red betel leaves (Piper crocantum) also contain carvakrol which is anti-fungal and disinfectant, and it that can be used as an antiseptic medicine to maintain oral cavity health, cure fluor albus disease, and alleviate bad odor. <strong>Purpose</strong>: The present study aims to discover the effectiveness of the decoction of red betel leaves in reducing the fluor albus symptoms. <strong>Method:</strong> This study uses quasi-experimental research design with one group undertaking pre- and post-tests. It involved 20 adolescent girls of Al-Adzkia Sentul Boarding School in which the sample was taken using purposive sampling techniques. Further, a closed ended questionnaire is used to collect data, then analyzed using paired t-test. <strong>Result:</strong> The results showed a meaningful difference before being given treatment for 13.40. After treatment the value became 8.27 with a p-value &lt; of α (0.005). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results this study indicated a decrease in symptoms of vaginal discharge after the use of red betel leaf decoction and recommended it to be used as a form of non-pharmacological therapy or traditional medicine in reducing fluor albus symptoms in adolescent girls.</em></p> Rosa Purwanti Niken Grah Prihartanti Rini Hayu Lestari Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 3 146 151 10.20473/jvhs.V5.I3.2022.146-151 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ACUPUNCTURE ON ORTHOPAEDIC PAIN WITHIN A VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SETTING <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Acupuncture is rapidly rising in popularity within western populations since</em><em> its development and consequently </em><em>there is increasing interest from a variety of clients. <strong>Purpose:</strong> To evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture on orthopaedic pain within a vocational rehabilitation setting in London, United Kingdom.<strong> Method: </strong>A retrospective service evaluation design. A pre- and post-acupuncture questionnaire was utilised as the data collection tool.<strong> Result:</strong> Eighty-six clients were included in this evaluation because they met the criteria for inclusion. Analysis on the age differences between males and females were not statistically significant (p=0.05). The conditions that were most frequently seen at the clinic included: 57% (49/86) spinal pain; 28% (24/86) upper limb pain; and 15% (13/86) lower limb pain. The mean number of treatment sessions for acupuncture was three (range=1-6). Overall each session of treatment lasted on average twenty minutes (range=15-30). The total number of needles used during each session of treatment averaged five (range=3-8). The reported benefit of treatment was 44% (38/86) excellent, 49% (42/86) good, and 7% (6/86) poor.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>This evaluation has demonstrated that acupuncture is effective on orthopaedic pain within a vocational rehabilitation setting. Repeat audits and larger sample sizes are needed for confirmation the findings.</em></p> Laran Chetty Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 3 152 156 10.20473/jvhs.V5.I3.2022.152-156 Front Matter Front Matter Vol 5 No. 3 2022 Front Matter Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 5 3 ABNORMAL BLOOD LIPIDS LEVELS (DYSLIPIDEMIA) TREATMENT WITH ACUPUNCTURE METHOD <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong><em> Dyslipidemia is an abnormal lipid metabolism characterized by an increase in total cholesterol, LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein), triglycerides (TG), and a decrease in HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein). Increased levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and decreased HDL levels can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to TCM, dyslipidemia is categorized into “Tan Zheng” (phlegm syndrome), “Shi Zuo” (damp retention), “Xuan Yun” (vertigo), and “Fei Pang” (obesity). <strong>Purpose: </strong>The purpose of this review is to analyze the literature study on TCM within the treatment of dyslipidemia with different acupuncture methods and points. The primary data search was conducted using online e-resources (Google Scholar, Proquest, and Pubmed). <strong>Review:</strong> The results of the study should include at least one of the outcomes indicators for total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and HDL. The result there were 20 journals consisting of studies that used several acupuncture methods, manual acupuncture (AM), electroacupuncture (EA), moxa (MOK), auricular acupuncture (AA), Cupping (CUP), and found additional interventions such as nutritional interventions, and exercise; body points often used are Zusanli (ST 36), Fenglong (ST 40), Quchi (LI 11), Daheng (SP15), Zhongwan (CV 12), Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Shenque (CV 8), Tianshu (ST 25), and therefore for AA are Spleen (CO 13), Stomach (CO 4), Shenmen (TF 4), and hunger point. Twenty journals showed a decrease in total cholesterol, TG, LDL levels, and an increase in HDL levels. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, all types of acupuncture methods can reduce total cholesterol, TG and LDL levels, and increase HDL levels. </em></p> Anissa Maulina Rinjani Maya Septriana Lilik Herawati Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 3 157 165 10.20473/jvhs.V5.I3.2022.157-165 EFFECT OF FOOT MASSAGE ON REDUCING FATIGUE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING HEMODIALYSIS <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong><em> Hemodialysis can cause various problems, both physical and psychological. One of the physical problems is fatigue, about 71.0%-92.2% of patients undergoing dialysis are exhausted. One therapy to overcome fatigue is foot massage therapy. <strong>Purpose:</strong> This literature aims to identify the effectiveness of foot massage on the reduction of fatigue in hemodialysis patients. <strong>Review:</strong> This is a literature study that uses the Pubmed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases (with keywords and article criteria defined by the author). The results of the literature found 4 papers were discussing the effect of foot massage on the reduction of fatigue in hemodialysis patients. Foot massage can improve blood circulation and stimulate the production of endorphins, reducing fatigue, relieving tension, and increasing comfort in hemodialysis patients. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The four papers show that foot massage was effective on reducing fatigue in hemodialysis patients</em></p> Yuni Sri Lestari Dian Hudiyawati Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 3 166 173 10.20473/jvhs.V5.I3.2022.166-173 PHYTOCHEMICAL, USE IN ETHNOMEDICINE, AND THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITIES OF MARCHANTIA GENUS <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><em>: Liverworts are a group of plants from the Marchantia genus containing various biologically active compounds and comprised of 65 species worldwide. This plant species belongs to the Marchantiaceae family, which was used empirically in China, North America, Ancient Greece, and Indonesia to treat open wounds, burns, hepatotoxicity, and infection prevention. Now, liverworts have great potential as medicinal and nutraceutical products because of their phytochemical content and diversity of pharmacological activities. </em><strong><em>Purpose: </em></strong><em>This review focuses on secondary metabolites obtained from the thalloid and whole plant parts (herbs) and the compilation of their pharmacological activities, which are still poorly documented. </em><strong><em>Review</em></strong><em>: This review article obtained related information through extensive international journals (online) scientific databases and offline (books) related to all searches of the species of the genus Marchantia which included: phytochemical content (secondary metabolites) and various pharmacological activities which were collected and compared all results of literature studies from various aspects. Some of the secondary metabolites are Marchantin A, B, D dan E; Paleatin B; Perrottetin F, and Plagiochin E, which have various pharmacological activities. Various results regarding all the therapeutic properties of the genus Marchantia have been produced in the world such as: antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, cytotoxic activity, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, hepatoprotective, muscle relaxant, antiosteoporosis, and skin care. </em><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: Therefore, the potential for the development of medicinal, supplementary and nutraceutical products from various Marchantia species is very large and broad for the future.</em><em></em></p> Dicki Bakhtiar Purkon Faizah Min Fadhlillah Tonny Cortis Maigoda Maria Immaculata Iwo Adreanus Andaja Soemardji Ainun Nadhifah Yayat Sudaryat Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 3 174 185 10.20473/jvhs.V5.I3.2022.174-185 POTENCY OF SOURSOP LEAF EXTRACT AND CURCUMIN WITH MAGNETIC AND MUCUS-PENETRATING NANOPARTICLE AS COLORECTAL CANCER ALTERNATIVE THERAPY <p><strong><em><span lang="EN-ID">Background: </span></em></strong><em><span lang="EN-ID">Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. Currently,<strong> </strong>resection and adjuvant chemotherapy are the main therapies for colorectal cancer. Resection is an invasive procedure and chemotherapy often causes side effects due to non-specific work targets. <strong>Purpose:</strong> This study examines the potential of soursop leaf extract and curcumin with magnetic and mucus-penetrating nanoparticles as an alternative therapy for colorectal cancer. <strong>Review:</strong> Soursop leaf extract has acetogenin agent as an anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic agent that acts specifically on target organs. Curcumin from turmeric extract has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antiangiogenic, and anticancer effects. Curcumin works molecularly on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) to prevent inflammation, thereby inhibit the growth of cancer cells and reducing the risk of metastasis. Curcumin also plays a role in the inhibition of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) cells, thus inhibits carcinogenesis. For drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles and mucus-penetrating nanoparticles could be used. The magnetic field of magnetic nanoparticles generates force and torque to increase the temperature and movement of the organelles, so that apoptosis occurs from cancer cells. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles are more resistant to mucus degradation because they can avoid mucoadhesive effects, penetrate the mucus adherent layer, and are easily absorbed by the intestinal epithelium. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Soursop leaves, curcumin, magnetic nanoparticles, and mucus-penetrating nanoparticles are potential to be an alternative therapy for colorectal cancer.</span></em></p> Faiza Rahma Ebnudesita Savira Butsainah Dienanta Ayik Rochyatul Jannah Reny I'tishom Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 3 186 191 10.20473/jvhs.V5.I3.2022.186-191 THE ROLE OF ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY TO OVERCOME ONE-SIDE HEAD PAIN (MIGRAINE) <p><strong><em><span>Background: </span></em></strong><em><span>Migraine is a primary headache, usually described as pain attacks lasting 4 - 72 hours, unilateral, throbbing, with moderate to severe pain intensity that can be exacerbated by activity, and can be accompanied by nausea and vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. Migraine can interfere with patient activities, so that it can reduce productivity and result in an economic burden to the family and reduce the patient's quality of life.</span><span> To handle it, pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies can be used. <span>Acupuncture therapy is one of the non-pharmacological therapeutic options that can be used in migraines.</span> <strong>Purpose: </strong>This article review collects and analyzes journals related to the effect of acupuncture therapy on migraines. The journal search method was carried out electronically from December to April 2021 using several databases such as Pubmed, Sagepub and Google Schoolar with the keywords: acupuncture in cases of migraine, acupuncture for migraine, and acupuncture point for migraine. <strong>Review:</strong> The journal searches discovered <span>that acupuncture therapy had an effect in reducing pain intensity in migraine cases with the most widely used method that was the manual acupuncture method. However, the most influential method was the combination method of manual acupuncture, herbal acupuncture, and nutritional therapy</span></span><span lang="EN-ID"> with the hyperactivity of Yang liver as the frequently occurring syndrome. The frequently used points were the acupuncture points of Fengchi-GB20, Hegu-LI4, Taichong-LR3, Baihui-DU20, Zusanli-ST36, Sanyinjiao-SP6, and Taiyang-EX-HN5.</span><strong><span>Conclusion:</span></strong><span> Based on the journal analyses, the combination method of manual acupuncture, herbal acupuncture, and nutritional therapy can reduce pain intensity in migraine cases</span></em></p> Mut Mainnah Maya Septriana Wurlina Wurlina Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 3 192 202 10.20473/jvhs.V5.I3.2022.192-202 POTENCY OF CHLORELLA SPP. AS AN ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENT <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong><em> Chlorella is a natural marine product that belongs to the type of unicellular green microalgae which is currently widely used as an alternative therapy because of its secondary metabolite content which has various benefits with minimal side effects. Chlorella has also been widely studied for activities such as being an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent that plays a role in prevention and treatment.<strong> Purpose: </strong>This literature review aims to dig up information about the potency of<strong> </strong>Chlorella as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent based on several previous studies.<strong> Review: </strong>Based on the online existing literature from the PubMed and Google Scholar databases, the results of studies on the potential of Chlorella as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent were analyzed. Based on the literature review, Chlorella can act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent due to the phenolic compounds, carotenoid pigments and chlorophyll, and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) contained in it. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Chlorella has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity and has the potential to prevent and treat several types of diseases</em><em>.</em><em></em></p> Fauzia Rahma Cahyani Hasna Siti Munifah Isman Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 3 203 211 10.20473/jvhs.V5.I3.2022.203-211 Back Matter Back Matter Vol 5 No. 3 2022<div> </div> Back Matter Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 5 3