Journal of Vocational Health Studies <p align="justify"><img style="margin-left: 16px; margin-righ=8px; margin-bottom: 16px;" src="" alt="" width="191" height="270" align="right" /><strong><img alt="" />Journal of Vocational Health Studies</strong>, with registered number <strong>ISSN </strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>2580-7161</strong></a> (Print) and<strong> ISSN</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>2580-717X</strong></a> (Online), is a scientific journal published by the Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga. Journal of Vocational Health Studies publishes scientific articles such as Case Studies, Literature Studies, and Research Articles related to various aspects of science in the fields of <strong>Radiology, Traditional Medicine, Medical Laboratory Technology, Occupational Health and Safety, Dental Laboratory Technique, and Physiotherapy.</strong> We welcome all experts, practitioners, and academicians to submit their articles.</p> <p align="justify">All submitted manuscripts will go through the <strong>double-blind peer review</strong> and editorial review before being granted acceptance for publication. Submissions must be <strong>original work</strong> and <strong>have never been previously published</strong>.</p> <p align="justify">The Journal of Vocational Health Studies has been accredited as a 2nd Grade Scientific Journal (Sinta-2) by the <strong>Ministry of Science, Research, Technology</strong> of Indonesia (RISTEKDIKTI RI), abstracted and displayed in DOAJ, Index Copernicus, Google Scholar, Neliti, Crossref, and <a href="">some indexing repository.</a></p> Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga en-US Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2580-7161 <ul><li>T<span>he authors agree to transfer the transfer copyright of the article to the Journal of Vocational Health Studies (JVHS) effective if and when the paper is accepted for publication.</span></li><li>Legal formal aspect of journal publication accessibility refers to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA), implies that publication can be used for non-commercial purposes in its original form.</li><li>Every publications (printed/electronic) are open access for educational purposes, research, and library. Other that the aims mentioned above, editorial board is not responsible for copyright violation.</li></ul><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify"><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p><p><span>Journal of Vocational Health Studies is licensed under a </span><a href="" rel="license" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a></p> EFFECTIVENESS EDGE DETECTION OPERATOR CANNY TO IMPROVE IMAGE QUALITY THORAX CT SCAN IN CASES COVID-19 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Thorax CT scan is one of the medical supports that contributes most importantly to the diagnosis, especially cases of COVID-19. The disadvantage that has a CT scan image is noise. When the noise is high then the Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) value produced is low. Canny operator edge detection technique is one solution to animate noise. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Analyzing differences in image quality and anatomical information on thorax CT scan images in COVID-19 patients before and after the application of canny operator edge detection techniques. <strong>Method:</strong> A quasi experimental research on thorax CT Scan images before and after the application of canny operator edge detection which amounted to 10 samples. Image assessment is done by measuring noise, SNR, and anatomical information. Differences in image quality (noise and SNR) are tested with paired T-tests. Anatomical information is tested with the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. <strong>Result:</strong> There are differences in image quality in thorax CT scan images in COVID-19 patients before and after the application of canny operator edge detection techniques, with p-value &lt;0.001. There are differences in the anatomical information of thorax CT scan images in COVID-19 patients before and after the application of canny operator edge detection technique with a p-value of 0.004. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Edge detection operator canny techniques are able to lower noise values, improve SNR and improve image anatomy information thorax CT scan in COVID-19 patients.</em></p> Prima Selvia Megawati M. Choiroel Anwar Fatimah Sudiyono Darmini Saifudin Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 77 82 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I2.2023.77-82 MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBAPENEM RESISTANT KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE AT A TERTIARY CARE LABORATORY IN KERALA, INDIA <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to Carbapenem appears to be most commonly transmitted by hospitalized patients. This may cause infections which lead to mortality. Therefore, studies on molecular level will help to gain more information and be able to know their cross-transmission and resistance mechanisms among these isolates showing resistance. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Investigate the molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from various clinical samples. Klebsiella pneumoniae are aerobic and Gram-negative bacilli found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals and also as saprophytes in soil. Method: In this study, 401 bacteria of Klebsiella isolates were taken from various clinical samples according to standard protocol. Carbapenem-resistant genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRK) isolates were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). <strong>Result:</strong> The twelve isolates resistant to carbapenem were confirmed phenotypically and were confirmed using a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study concluded that identification of Carbapenem-resistant genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) could help find out the routes of dissemination of the species and may control its spread within the hospital premises.</em></p> Swapna C. Senan Jithu Paul Jacob Ramani Bhai Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 83 89 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I2.2023.83-89 IDENTIFICATION OF THE CTX-M GENE IN KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE PRODUCING ESBLS IN UTI PATIENTS AT A PRIVATE HOSPITAL IN PURWOKERTO, BANYUMAS REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA - CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background: </strong>The CTX-M gene in ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is associated with virulence factors and encodes for antibiotic resistance. There are currently 128 different varieties of CTX-M, which gene can hydrolyze beta-lactam medicines like cefotaxime. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Identify the CTX-M gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae from patients with Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) at a private hospital in Banyumas Region of Central Java, Indonesia. <strong>Method:</strong> Cross-sectional survey method was employed in this study. The subjects of the study comprised 40 patients with UTI admitted to a private hospital in Banyumas Region, Central Java, Indonesia. Using a direct molecular approach called Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) directed against the CTX-M gene, DNA was isolated from isolates cultured in CHROMagarTM ESBLs obtained from catheter urine samples. <strong>Result:</strong> A total of 4 out of 40 urine samples (10%) tested positive for ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The PCR was performed to detect the CTX-M gene in 100% of the strains. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> These findings suggest the presence of CTX-M gene found in ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in individuals with urinary tract infections in a private hospital in Purwokerto, Banyumas regency, Central Java, Indonesia. This information can be used to assess antibiotic administration practices.</em></p> Anang Kurniawan Joko Setyono Dwi Utami Anjarawati Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 90 94 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I2.2023.90-94 THE ANALYSIS OF INTERINCISAL AND VERTICAL ANGLES ON CONVEX FACIAL PROFILE ACCORDING TO STEINER (STUDY OF JAVANESE ORTHODONTIC PATIENTS IN BANYUMAS REGENCY) <p><em><strong>Background:</strong> Orthodontic treatment focuses on correcting abnormal teeth and jaw positions for better facial esthetics. Abnormal teeth can be corrected by interincisal angle, while vertical angle can determine the facial growth pattern. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Analyze the interincisal and vertical angles </em><em>on convex facial profiles of Javanese orthodontic patients in the Banyumas Regency. <strong>Method:</strong> Analytical descriptive research was conducted with a cross-sectional design. A purposive sampling technique was used to obtain lateral cephalograms totaling 33 based on inclusion and exclusion </em><em>criteria from three locations. The lateral cephalogram was traced using tracing paper, while the interincisal and vertical angles were measured based on Steiner’s analysis. Two operators carried out measurements, starting with tracing validation and the Kappa test. Furthermore, the </em><em>results were from the average measurement of the two operators. <strong>Result:</strong> The mean interincisal and vertical angles were 115.30° and 37.04° with a protrusive inclination and hyperdivergent face, respectively. The correlation test showed a p-value of 0.432 (p &gt; 0.05), meaning there was </em><em>no relationship between the interincisal and vertical angles in Javanese orthodontic patients. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is no relationship between the interincisal and vertical angles in the convex facial profile of Javanese orthodontic patients in the Banyumas Regency.</em></p> Nur Aisyah Dewi Kusuma Fani Tuti Handayani Ryana Budi Purnama Ali Taqwim Jatu Rachel Keshena Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 95 99 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I2.2023.95-99 PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS IN RAT MODELS OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA INDUCED BY CAPSAICIN EXTRACT NANOPARTICLE GEL <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is highly invasive neoplasm of oral epithelial </em><em>tissue that is moderately differentiated and tends to metastasize rapidly. Capsaicin, a pungent </em><em>phytochemical in red peppers, exhibits both anti-proliferative and potential pro-cancer effects on </em><em>human cancer cell lines. <strong>Purpose</strong>: Determine the proliferation and apoptosis between five groups </em><em>of rats induced OSCC. <strong>Method:</strong> 5 groups of treatment; C- (untreated rats), C+ (induced by DMBA), </em><em>E1 (exposed to DMBA and given cisplatin), E2 (induced by DMBA and Capsaicin extract nanoparticle </em><em>gel with 1% concentration), and E3 (induced by DMBA and Capsaicin extract nanoparticle gel </em><em>with a concentration of 3.3%). Maceration method was used to obtain Capsaicin extract from </em><em>green cayenne pepper, then made into nanoparticle gel. Tissue samples were taken after the </em><em>treatment was completed, then they were pathologicallyobserved histopathological using IHC </em><em>to assess apoptic activity via the TUNEL method and proliferative activity using PCNA. <strong>Result:</strong> </em><em>The proliferative activity in the E1 group had a significant difference compared to the E2 and E3 </em><em>groups. E2 and E3 were not significantly different (p-value ≥0.05). Apoptotic activity in Group E1 </em><em>indicated a significant difference from the E2 group and was not significantly different from the E3 </em><em>group, whereas the E2 and E3 groups were significantly different from each other (p-value ≤0.05). </em><em><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The research showed that Capsaicin nanoparticle gel increased apoptotic activity </em><em>while decreasing proliferative activity in different treatment groups of the OSCC rat model.</em></p> Pratiwi Nur Widyaningsih Fitri Aniowati Cantika Nadrotan Naim Nova Dwi Anggraeni Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 100 106 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I2.2023.100-106 EFFECT OF POST MORTEM INTERVAL TOWARD Β-TRYPTASE AND CHYMASE EXPRESSION OF ANAPHYLACTIC HEART MAST CELLS <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> The effects of post mortem interval on tryptase levels are unclear and have been challenging to quantify due to limited and at times contradictory research. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Analyze the effects of Post Mortem Interval (PMI) due to anaphylactic shock on the expression of β-tryptase and mast cell chymase in the heart organ. <strong>Method:</strong> This type of research was an experimental study with a randomized block design (RBD) with the same subjects and a time series for 24 hours, using 5 (five) rabbits. The measurement of β-tryptase and chymase expression was based on immunohistochemical IRS (immunoreactive score) in the heart organs of rabbits experiencing anaphylactic shock sensitization and induction of anaphylactic shock using ovalbumin. <strong>Result:</strong> Based on the results of statistical tests using univariate analysis, there was a relationship between the length of death (post mortem interval) and the expression of mast cells β-Tryptase and cardiac chymase (p-value = 0.006) and chymase (p-value = 0.002) with (p-value &lt;0.05). The effective test time with β-tryptase markers using cardiac organs was prone to long death time of 0 - 15 hours. The effective check-up time with chymase markers using the heart organ was at a long time of death of 9 hours. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of the study showed that tryptase and chymase could be used as markers of anaphylactic shock.</em></p> Imam Susilo Bilqisthi Ari Putra Ahmad Yudianto Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 107 114 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I2.2023.107-114 MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF PURPLE LEAF EXTRACT (GRAPTOPHYLLUM PICTUM L. GRIFF) AGAINST LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS ATCC 4356 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Dental caries is an oral cavity disease that affects most Indonesians. Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) is one of the bacteria that causes dental caries. Control of bacteria in the form of antibacterial agents is needed to suppress the growth of L. acidophilus. Purple leaves (Graptophyllum pictum L. Griff) are a medicinal plant with antibacterial compounds, namely flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and tannins. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of purple leaves extract on the growth of L. acidophilus. <strong>Method:</strong> The sample consisted of seven groups, including positive control (chlorhexidine 0.2%), negative control (BHI-B), and purple leaves extract with concentrations of 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.12%, and 1.56%. The antibacterial activity of purple leaves extract was carried out quantitatively using a spectrophotometer with a wavelength of 600 nm. After that, it was incubated at 37°C for 48 hours, followed by absorbance measurement. The absorbance results were then analyzed using the Paired T-Test (before and after incubation). <strong>Result:</strong> Purple leaves extract concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, and 25% had an inhibitory effect on L. acidophillus. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of purple leaves extract on the growth of L. acidophilus was 6.25%</em></p> Shafira Indriyani Chusnadia Atik Kurniawati Sari Setyaningsih Erawati Wulandari Pudji Astuti Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 115 120 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I2.2023.115-120 Front Matter Vol. 7 No. 2 2023 <h4 class="title">Front Matter Vol. 7 No. 2 2023</h4> JVHS Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 WHAT ARE THE CAUSES AND TYPES OF FARMER TRAUMA? A LITERATURE REVIEW <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> The application of technology in agricultural mechanization has not been able to prevent or reduce the threat of occupational health problems in farmers. It is necessary to identify the causative or triggering factors.<strong> Purpose:</strong> Identify the causes and types of injuries experienced by farmers. <strong>Review:</strong> The method used in this study was a literature review with an electronic database search through Springer Link, Science Direct, Pub-med, and Google Scholar based on the inclusion criteria respondents that were farmers who had experienced work-related trauma and there were interventions in the form of assessment of trauma events in farmers, using the method of a systematic review or analytical retrospective study or a population-based observational study or cross-sectional study, using Indonesian and English, published in 2018-2022.<strong> Result:</strong> The results of the literature review showed that the causes of trauma due to agriculture were agricultural machinery, hand tools/ manual agricultural tools, farm animals, wild animals, falls, ergonomic positions, and fatigue. At the same time, the types of trauma in farming accidents were soft tissue injuries, concussions, fractures, avulsions, amputations, and infections to death. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Work-induced injuries directly affected farmers' lives, so it is necessary to increase knowledge in recognizing the factors causing injuries and management according to the type of injury experienced.</em></p> Arista Maisyaroh Eko Prasetya Widianto Syaifuddin Kurnianto Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 132 141 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I2.2023.132-141 FABRICATION OF MAYNE’S SPACE MAINTAINER FOR PREMATURE LOSS OF DECIDUOUS TEETH <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Premature loss for deciduous teeth is defined as the teeth that fall out before approaching the time of eruption of their replacement permanent teeth regardless of the reason for the loss of the teeth. The premature loss of deciduous teeth can cause the teeth next to the edentulous area to shift and lose arch space causing permanent teeth to grow abnormally. Prevention can be done by using Mayne's space maintainer so that the negative impact of premature loss does not occur. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Report the fabrication of Mayne's space maintainer in premature loss case. <strong>Case analysis:</strong> The laboratory accepted a working model with a case of premature loss in tooth 74 and was asked to make the Mayne's space maintainer. <strong>Result:</strong> This appliance consists of a molar band attached to tooth 75 with a 0.9 mm loop that is soldered on the buccal of the molar band. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that fabrication of Mayne's space maintainer in the case of premature loss of tooth 74 includes the preparation of a working model, adjustment of the molar band on tooth 75, making the loop, followed by soldering the loop to the molar band, finally the finishing and polishing.</em></p> Sianiwati Goenharto M. Kautsar Haula Robbi Eny Inayati Okti Setyowati Endang Kusdarjanti Mia Laksmi Lita Rosa Sujati Sri Wahjuni Sri Redjeki Anisa Nur Halimah Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 121 125 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I2.2023.121-125 THE EFFECT OF ABDOMINAL MASSAGE AND KUNYIT ASAM HERBS TO REDUCE PRIMARY MENSTRUAL PAIN (DYSMENORRHEA) <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Background:</strong> Menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea) is a cramp in the lower abdomen that occurs during menstruation, while menstrual pain that is experienced without any abnormality in the reproductive organ is called primary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea case experienced by the patient is complaints of pain in the lower part, sometimes spreading to the waist and feeling like pressure or squeezing which occurs within 1-2 days of menstruation. <strong>Purpose:</strong> Determine the effect of abdominal massage therapy and tamarind turmeric herbs on reducing primary dysmenorrhea. <strong>Case analysis:</strong> A case study for treating menstrual pain using abdominal massage and herbal methods. Abdominal massage therapy is performed on the abdominal area and herbal therapy is given to the patient, namely herbal turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) and tamarind fruit which have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects.<strong> Result:</strong> Turmeric and tamarind contain active compounds curcumin and anthocyanin which work together to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) reactions so that they can inhibit or reduce inflammation and uterine contractions which cause menstrual pain. The treatment for primary dysmenorrhea is abdominal massage therapy 14 times, once every 2 days for 30 days. Meanwhile, tamarind turmeric herbal therapy is given 2 times a day for 7 days before menstruation and the first 3 days during menstruation with a combination dose of 10 grams of turmeric rhizome and 5 grams of tamarind fruit. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Abdominal massage therapy and tamarind turmeric herbs affect reducing menstrual pain in the case of primary dysmenorrhea.</em></p> Dwi Setiani Sumardiko Alyaa’ Maulida Rizki Roswandi Neny Purwitasari Rini Hamsidi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 126 131 10.20473/jvhs.V7.I2.2023.126-131 Back Matter Vol. 7 No. 2 2023 <p>Back Matter Vol. 7 No. 2 2023</p> JVHS Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Vocational Health Studies 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2