Desy Purwidyastuti, Viskasari Pintoko Kalanjati

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Cortical dysplasia or  focal  cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of the most common causes of seizures and childhood epilepsy. It is one of some malformation types of cortical development. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or another radiographic modality, it is not easy to detect its abnormalities. Focal cortical dysplasia was firstly recognized by surgery of intractable epileptic patients. This review is written to describe malformation cortical development (MCD) especially focal cortical dysplasia, its embryology and abnormalities. Cerebral cortex has 6 layer which characteristically different in each of them. Neurons from those layers come from subpial neurons which had migrated to cortical layers according to its ages and functions. The younger ages of neurons will be placed more superficially. Disrupting at any stages of cortical development will be manifested in abnormalities of brain cortex. There are some classifications of MCD according to those cell morphology, Electro Encephalography (EEG), embryology and genetic. Focal cortical dysplasia  might be caused by disrupting in late stages of cortical development.  Focal cortical dysplasia can be distinguished in to two groups, the group I and group II. Microscopically between those groups could be distinguished by borders of the layers. In FCD there is alteration of neurotransmitter effect which is γ-amino butiric acid (GABA) in synaptic process. Its alteration causes seizures, epilepsy or other abnormalities which could be occurred in prenatal or perinatal period. Those seizures or epilepsy often drug resistant.


Cortical dysplasia; embryology; morphology; synaptic; Displasia korteks; embriologi; morfologi; sinaps

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