FOCAL CORTICAL DYSPLASIA

Desy Purwidyastuti, Viskasari Pintoko Kalanjati

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/mbiom.v25i1.2012.8-12
Abstract views = 362 times | downloads = 75 times

Abstract


Cortical dysplasia or  focal  cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of the most common causes of seizures and childhood epilepsy. It is one of some malformation types of cortical development. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or another radiographic modality, it is not easy to detect its abnormalities. Focal cortical dysplasia was firstly recognized by surgery of intractable epileptic patients. This review is written to describe malformation cortical development (MCD) especially focal cortical dysplasia, its embryology and abnormalities. Cerebral cortex has 6 layer which characteristically different in each of them. Neurons from those layers come from subpial neurons which had migrated to cortical layers according to its ages and functions. The younger ages of neurons will be placed more superficially. Disrupting at any stages of cortical development will be manifested in abnormalities of brain cortex. There are some classifications of MCD according to those cell morphology, Electro Encephalography (EEG), embryology and genetic. Focal cortical dysplasia  might be caused by disrupting in late stages of cortical development.  Focal cortical dysplasia can be distinguished in to two groups, the group I and group II. Microscopically between those groups could be distinguished by borders of the layers. In FCD there is alteration of neurotransmitter effect which is γ-amino butiric acid (GABA) in synaptic process. Its alteration causes seizures, epilepsy or other abnormalities which could be occurred in prenatal or perinatal period. Those seizures or epilepsy often drug resistant.

Keywords


Cortical dysplasia; embryology; morphology; synaptic; Displasia korteks; embriologi; morfologi; sinaps

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barkovich, A.J. et al., 2012. A developmental and genetic classification for malformations of cortical development: update 2012. Brain, hal.1-22.

Blümcke, I. et al., 2009. Malformations of cortical development and epilepsies: neuropathological findings with emphasis on focal cortical dysplasia. Epileptic Disord., 11 (3),

hal.181-93.

Calcagnotto, M.E., 2005. Dysfunction of synaptic inhibition in epilepsy associated with focal cortical dysplasia. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25(42), hal.9649 –9657.

Fauser, S. et al., 2006. Clinical characteristics in focal cortical dysplasia: a retrospective evaluation in a series of 120 patients. Brain, 129, hal.1907–1916.

Guyton, A.C., 2007. Sistem saraf. Di dalam: Fisiologi manusia dan mekanisme penyakit. Edisi ke-3. Jakarta: EGC Penerbit Buku Kedokteran, hal.399-42.

Krsek, P. et al., 2010. Low-grade focal cortical dysplasia is associated with prenatal and perinatal brain injury. Epilepsia, hal.2440–8.

Lavdas, A.A. Grigoriou, M. Pachnis, V. & Parnavelas, J.G., 1999. The medial ganglionic eminence gives rise to a population of early neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. J Neurosci., hal.7881-7888.

Marin-Padilla, M., 2002. Shaken infant syndrome: developmental neuropathology, progressive

cortical dysplasia and epilepsy. Acta Neuropathol., hal.321–32.

Palmini, A. Najm, I. & Avanzini, G., 2004. Terminology and classification of the cortical dysplasias. Neurology, hal.2-8.

Porter, B.E. Kayal, A.B. & Golden, J.A., 2002. Disorders of cortical development and epilepsy. Arch Neurol. 59, hal.361-365.

Powell, E.M. et al., 2003. Genetic disruption of cortical interneuron development causes region-and GABA cell type-specific deficits, epilepsy, and behavioral dysfunction. J Neurosci., hal.622– 631.

Sadler, T.W., 2010. Sistem saraf. Di dalam: Embriologi kedokteran Langman. Jakarta: EGC Penerbit Buku Kedokteran, hal.347-361.

Semah, F. et al., 1998. Is the underlying sense of epilepsy a major prognostic factor for recurrence?. Neurology, hal.1256-62.

Snell, R.S., 2010. The structure and functional localization of cerebral cortex. Di dalam: Clinical neuroanatomy. Edisi ke-7. Phila-delphia: Lippincott William Wilkins, hal. 285-303.

Spreafico, R., 1998. Immunocytochemical investigation on dysplastic human tissue from epileptic patients. Epilepsy Res., hal.34–48.

Spreafico, R., 2000. Inhibitory circuits in human dysplastic tissue. Epilepsia, hal.168 –173.

Tassi, L. et al., 2002. Focal cortical dysplasia: neuropathological subtypes, EEG, neuro-imaging and surgical outcome. Brain, hal.1719-1732. Taylor, D.C. Falconer, M.A. Bruton, C.J. &

Corsellis, J.A., 1971. Focal dysplasia of the cerebral cortex in epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, hal.369-87.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Majalah Biomorfologi

Creative Commons License
Majalah Biomorfologi (p-ISSN:0215-8833; e-ISSN:2716-0920) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
 

View Majalah Biomorfologi Statistics

 

 Indexed By