A Hydatidiform mole is an abnormal product of conception characterized by significant hydrophic enlargement and proliferation of trophoblast, involving some or all of the chorionic villi. The main risk factors of hydatidiform mole are younger/ older age and a history of previous molar pregnancy. Genetically, complete moles are usually diploid and all chromosomes derived from 46 paternal chromosomes. While partial moles have a triploid chromosomes, usually formed by fertilization of one normal ovum by two spermatozoon. Thus, both complete and partial moles have two pairs of haploid paternal genes (diandric). Several studies showed biparental moles can be familial or sporadic and these conditions associated with missense mutations of a gene located on 19q13.3 - 13.4 chromosome. Mutation of NLRP7 have responsibility in recurrency of familial and isolated/sporadic case, which is sometimes associated with reproductive wastage. Generally, the risk of malignancy for complete mole is higher than partial mole. The incidence of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia post-evacuation is 8-29% for complete and 0.5-5.5% for partial mole. Invasive moles are benign tumors derived from direct invation of hydatidiform mole into the myometrium through the veins or tissue. Invasive moles have the same histopathological appearance with complete hydatidiform mole, but with the invation into the myometrium. One of the strategy to prevent the recurrence of invasive mole or choriocarcinoma is doing karyotyping or chromosome screening examinations. While to reduce the risk of recurrence of diandric mole on pregnant women, they are advised to do the IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) technology using the ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection), where it can prevent dispermic fertilization.
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