Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik <p>Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik (MKP) is open access, peer-reviewed, and scientific journal published by The Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia. The objective of Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik (MKP) is to publish original research articles from researchers and practitioners on various topics of society, culture, and political issues: community welfare, social development, civil society movements, digital society and disruption, gender issues, family and marriages, media, information &amp; literacy, tourism development, sociocultural anthropology, politics, governance &amp; democracy, international politics &amp; security studies, youth studies, radicalism and terrorism, public policy &amp; innovation, citizenship &amp; public management.</p> <p align="justify">This journal is published quarterly and has been certified as a Scientific Journal, accredited B since July 2008, and accredited second grade (Sinta 2 or S2) since October 2018 by the Indonesian Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology. Since 2017, all articles have been published in English. Submissions are open year-round. Before submitting, please ensure that the manuscript is in accordance with MKP's <a title="Focus &amp; Sscope" href=""><strong>focus and scope</strong></a>, written in English, and follows our <a title="Author Guidelines" href=""><strong>author guidelines</strong></a> &amp; <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>manuscript template</strong></a>.</p> <p align="justify">The journal has been indexed in Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI-Web of Science), ASEAN Citation Index (ACI), Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), Google Scholar, and other international indexing.</p> Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Airlangga en-US Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 2086-7050 <ol><li><p align="justify">Copyright of this journal is possession of Editorial Board and Journal Manager, by the knowledge of the author, while the moral right of the publication belongs to the author.</p></li><li><p align="justify">The formal legal aspect of journal publication accessibility refers to <span>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA)</span>, implies that publication can be used for non-commercial purposes in its original form (cannot be modified).</p></li><li><p align="justify">Every publication (printed/electronic) are open access for educational purposes, research, and library. Other than the aims mentioned above, the editorial board is not responsible for copyright violation.</p></li></ol> Impact of COVID-19 on increasing female genital mutilation (FGM) in Africa: A study of Tanzania and Nigeria <p>Women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) have been undermined from time to time due to <br />female genital mutilation (FGM). Women and girls experiencing FGM in many developing countries, including <br />Tanzania and Nigeria. The aim of this study is to investigate the problems that occurred during the COVID-19 <br />pandemic, which contributed to the high rates of FGM in Tanzania and Nigeria. This study uses a qualitative <br />method to see the prevalence of FGM in both countries which has increased since the COVID-19 pandemic. This <br />study is supported by the Patriarchal theory of Sylvia Walby, which explains why men try to oppress and control <br />women as figures who dominate society. The study results show that both Nigeria and Tanzania have seen an <br />increase in FGM amid COVID-19, with school closures placing teenage girls at the highest risk of FGM. The study <br />concludes that the government, private institutions, and other development stakeholders should work together to <br />find solutions to assist communities and families in ending FGM. If these efforts are implemented, then the 2030 <br />sustainable development agenda can become a reality in ending FGM in Nigeria and Tanzania.</p> Emmanuel Michael Massay Emy Susanti Sutinah Sutinah Copyright (c) 2022 Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 35 2 134 146 10.20473/mkp.V35I22022.134-146 Experiences of educated youth exposed to domestic violence: Social impact to their lives <p>The number of cases of domestic violence against women and children in Indonesia has escalated year by year. Various studies have revealed the impact of family violence on children, but few have sought to investigate the sociological lives of youth who have been exposed to domestic violence since childhood. This study aimed to reveal the experiences of educated youth who are exposed to domestic violence and its impact on them. This study used a qualitative method. The research informants were educated youth who had been victims of domestic violence and were currently students in the university. The results showed that children who were victims of exposure to violence had bad experiences throughout their lives. They recorded domestic violence from childhood to growing up. They believe that parents and families are parties that are unable to provide protection. In addition, exposure to violence also causes mental health disorders, poor psychological conditions, and thoughts of refusing to marry. This study concludes that exposure to domestic violence has a serious impact on children’s social development because from childhood to adulthood they grow up in a violence zone.</p> Siti Mas'udah Lutfi Apreliana Megasari Evan Doran Copyright (c) 2022 Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 35 2 147 159 10.20473/mkp.V35I22022.147-159 Degradation of democracy with the existence of a single candidate for regional head elections in Indonesia <p>Regional head elections are part of the implementation of a democracy which is essentially indicated by political <br />participation. The political elite at the central government also influences political competition in the regions. <br />Every regional head election has to have a recommendation letter from the central board of the political party. <br />The recommendation letter is a requirement for candidates for regent or mayor who will register to the General <br />Election Commission (KPU). The general elections for regional heads are carried out to meet the demands of <br />the community to elect their regional leaders directly with the spirit of democracy. Political elites often misuse <br />democracy in pursuing power for personal or group interests so that a single candidate appears in the regional head <br />elections. This study analyzes the relationship between the political elites and a single candidate using qualitative <br />methods with descriptive analysis based on credible data sources. The results of this study stated that the political <br />elite manipulate a significant role in gathering all-party support with a separate agreement so that a single candidate <br />emerged in the regional head elections. This study concludes that the existence of a single candidate in the regional <br />head elections results in a degradation in the democracy in Indonesia.</p> Syaiful Rohman Marthen Napang Puspitasari Puspitasari Copyright (c) 2022 Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 35 2 160 169 10.20473/mkp.V35I22022.160-169 Politics of sickness: Political struggles over the meaning of “sick” in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia <p>In dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic, political actors in Indonesia tend to interpret “sick” in different ways. This study aims to discuss practices of political struggles over the meaning of “sick” in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. By using qualitative discourse analysis where data were mainly obtained from January to October 2020, this study found that political struggles over the meaning of “sick” in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia were dominated by three major powers, namely the government, capitalist, and medical professionals. The meaning of “sick” given by these groups is not only different but also keeps changing from time to time, especially in certain political moments. This study found four important political moments which were closely related to the way these three groups of actors interpret the meaning of “sick” in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In one moment, “sick” was interpreted narrowly, while in another moment, “sick” was interpreted broadly. This study concludes that the struggle for the meaning of sick is an inherent practice in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. A further consequence is that the meaning of sick is not fixed as it is known so far but is more unfixed and contingent.</p> Adam Amin Bahar Kacung Marijan Antun Mardiyanta Copyright (c) 2022 Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 35 2 170 179 10.20473/mkp.V35I22022.170-179 Challenges and problems in the recruitment of ad hoc workers of election management body at the local level: Evidence from Banyumas <p>The prevailing national regulation on the recruitment of PPK, PPS, and KPPS staff sets forth that those temporary officers can be of service for only two periods of general election and cannot be involved afterwards. This regulation actually has positive aspect, but is not easy in its implementation. This article aims at examining the challenges and problems faced by the election management body at local level (Regency KPU) in preparing the human resource of ad hoc staff for the 2019 general election in Indonesia. This article was based on a qualitative research conducted in 2020 in Banyumas Regency, Central Java. This article shows that challenges that had to be faced by Regency KPU in the recruitment of ad hoc employees were the duration of screening and the way village leaders socialized the information regarding the recruitment. Whereas, the involvement of young generation and women as general election ad hoc workers in Banyumas was still low because of a number of factors, from know-how of general election to having lack information of the recruitment. This study concludes that actor’s action choice is limited by a number of matters, such as the path previously taken, rules regulating the agency, and social-political context.</p> Bowo Sugiarto Andi Ali Said Akbar Oktafiani Catur Pratiwi Indaru Setyo Nurprojo Titis Perdani Copyright (c) 2022 Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 35 2 180 192 10.20473/mkp.V35I22022.180-192 Variations of Islam and democracy in Muslim countries: From Islamic countries to secular Muslim countries and its relevance to the discourse of Islam and democracy <p>The phenomenon of Islam and democracy in Muslim countries is practiced differently between Muslim countries with an Islamic state and Muslim countries with a secular pattern. This article wants to examine and reassess the view of Islamic exceptions or “Islamic exceptionalism” on the scarcity of democracy in Muslim countries with case studies of regime variations found in Muslim countries. This article analyzes the variation of Islam and democracy in Muslim countries, with a comparative method using data from the democracy indexing agency. There are four variations of Muslim countries: Islamic countries, semi-Islamic countries, secular countries, and semi-secular countries. This study shows that, from the four variations of the Islamic world, none of the Islamic countries has succeeded in achieving full democracy (full democracy). Three Muslim countries have a flawed democracy (flawed democracy), namely Malaysia, Indonesia, and Tunisia. The rest of the Muslim countries are under a political system controlled by the military (hybrid democracy) and authoritarianism. In addition, this article finds that social, political, cultural, and agency tools and support in supporting democratic values are still the main problems that harm the scarcity of democracy in Muslim societies</p> Zulfadli Zulfadli Copyright (c) 2022 Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 35 2 193 206 10.20473/mkp.V35I22022.193-206 The dynamics of women’s representation in legislative body of Tasikmalaya City, West Java Indonesia <p>Women’s representation in the legislative body has a significant role in increasing democratic quality. This is because democracy necessitates the equality between men and women in political spheres, including in the legislative body. This article aims to critically analyze women’s representation in the legislative body in Tasikmalaya City and examine the implementation of affirmative action through 30% quota for women. The method used in this research is content analysis companied with political approach. As for the data, this article utilizes primary and secondary data collected through in-depth interview and library research, respectively. In addition, the data were analyzed through the concept of representation proposed by Pitkin as well as an integrated model of women’s representation used by Schwindt-Bayer and Mishler. This study reveals that women’s representation in a political position, such as parliament, does not merely depend on affirmative action through legal rules, it is also influenced by political, socioeconomic and ideological-psychological factors. This study concludes that women’s underrepresentation in parliament of Tasikmalaya City is caused not by a single factor, but by various factors such as education, religious and patriarchal beliefs as well as competencies of women candidates.</p> Widyawati Widyawati Copyright (c) 2022 Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 35 2 207 218 10.20473/mkp.V35I22022.207-218 Strengthening community social capital for post-mining land restoration efforts: Study at PT RBT in Penyamun Village, Bangka Belitung Province, Indonesia <p>Indonesia is still facing various environmental problems due to increasingly massive and inappropriate mining activities. Therefore, land restoration is a basic practice in the rehabilitation of mining damage. This study aims to examine empirically the reality of the relationship between the community and PT RBT and strengthen social capital in carrying out post-mining land restoration activities. This study used the descriptive qualitative method. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and a literature study. The results showed that social relations became the main indicator in supporting the formation of trust, cooperation, and networks. Elements of social capital are packaged in the form of community participation in various post-mining land restoration activities. This is done to minimize the level of environmental damage that has increased massively, marked by the ex-mining pit that occurred in Bangka Belitung. The relationships formed are certainly expected to provide feedback for villages that run post-mining land restoration programs. This study concludes that the existence of bonding and bridging social capital that works well will facilitate the continuity of the post-mining land restoration programs.</p> Herdiyanti Herdiyanti Putra Pratama Saputra Citra Asmara Indra Bustami Rahman Copyright (c) 2022 Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 2022-06-17 2022-06-17 35 2 219 230 10.20473/mkp.V35I22022.219-230 The Kantian Categorical Imperative and Marawi Refugees: Affirming the Importance of the Anti-Terrorism Law <p>Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative teaches a single moral obligation for every human person. Regarded by many as the most influential philosopher during the modern era, his ethical emphasis was on the deontological moral system as the basis of man’s actions rather than ethics based on subjective considerations. This paper uses an interpretive analysis of the Kantian doctrine intertwined with the treatment of refugees in the war-torn Marawi in 2017. Refugees and other victims of this human strife fled Marawi City and settled in other towns with the help of the government and other people and organizations. Terrorism did not stop in that year as this activity can still be felt all over the world. Even today, the Philippine government still deals with terroristic acts despite the promulgation of the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2020 and hopes to finally minimize if not end the brutal attacks brought about by terrorism. The actions of certain people helping refugees conform with this Kantian doctrine, specifically on Duty, Good Will, and Hospitality. The necessity of an Anti-Terrorism Law is also explained to put an end to or minimize terror attacks in the country despite objections from certain groups.</p> Sheldon Ives G. Agaton Copyright (c) 2022 Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 2022-06-17 2022-06-17 35 2 231 241 10.20473/mkp.V35I22022.231-241 Causes and remedial measures of presenteeism in the post Covid-19 era workplace: Insight from job demands-resources theory <p class="yiv2741522556msonormal">The COVID-19 pandemic has put many organizations under pressure to remain active and profitable despite the compulsory long break it gave everyone. There is growing concern that many employees are under pressure to be present at work to fulfil job demands that were not met at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. This situation has given rise to presenteeism, where workers do not work to their maximum potential. Several theories account for the reasoning behind presenteeism. This paper examines the job demands-resources theory of presenteeism related to the causes and remedial measures that can be put in place in coping with the consequences of presenteeism in any given organisation. Secondary data sources were adopted for this study. The data collected were analysed based on the research questions and presented thematically. The findings reveal that most organizations continue to increase the workload without the required resources necessary to accomplish the job demands. The study recommends that those at the helm of affairs should note the job demands assigned to their employees and make available all the resources to attend to the job demands in order to achieve the overall good of the organization even in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Ugochukwu D. Abasilim Oluwatumininu O. Adebajo Daniel E. Gberevbie Copyright (c) 2022 Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 35 2 242 251 10.20473/mkp.V35I22022.242-251