Comparison of VO2max Prediction of Submaximal Exercise Testing for Six Minute Arm Ergometer Test with Six Minute Walking Test in Untrained Healthy Young Adult Males

Taufan Hartawan, Andriati Andriati, Nurul Kusuma Wardani

Abstract views = 80 times | downloads = 36 times


Background: Six-minute walking test (6-MWT) is one of the submaximal exercise testing that is commonly used. The 6-MWT has limited use in the condition of individuals with limited limbs. Therefore, a six-minute arm ergometer test (6-MAT) submaximal exercise testing was developed. The presence of 6-MAT for assessing VO2max prediction is still relatively small.

Aim: To compare the predicted VO2max of 6-MWT and 6-MAT, and to see if there are differences in each predicted VO2max value.

Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a consecutive sampling, involving 31 untrained healthy young adult males, aged 26-40 years old. Each subject underwent two exercise testing 6-MWT and 6-MAT, which were carried out on different days with a minimum washout period of 24 hours. VO2max prediction value was evaluated for each exercise testing on each subject.

Results: There are significant differences between the predicted VO2max values of 6-MWT and 6- MAT (p = 0.00). The mean VO2max prediction values of 6-MAT is higher than 6-MWT with 2288.43 mL.min-1 and 1573.72 mL.min-1, respectively.

Conclusion: The 6-MAT could be used for assessing VO2max prediction of individuals, although, there is a difference value between the predicted VO2max of the 6-MWT and 6-MAT submaximal exercise testing, with the VO2max value of the 6-MAT higher than the 6-MWT submaximal exercise testing.


six-minute walk test; six-minute arm ergometer test; submaximal; VO2max

Full Text:



Arena R. Health-related physical fitness testing and interpretation. In: ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 9th. Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia. 2014; p. 72-87.

Abadie BR, Schuler PB. Estimation of arm maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from submaximal arm ergometer exercise in young male subjects. Sports Med Training and Rehab. 1999; 9(1): 15-23.

Bickenbach J, Boldt I, Brinkhof M, Chamberlain J, Cripps R, Fitzharris M, et al. Chapter 2: A global picture of spinal cord injury. In: International perspective on spinal cord injury. WHO Press. Geneva. Switzerland. 2013; p. 15- 17.

Tulaar ABM., Karyana M, Wahyuni LK, Paulus AFS, Tinduh D, Anestherita F, et al. People with spinal cord injury in Indonesia. American J. Phys. Med. Rehabilitation. 2017; 96(2): 74-77.

Ziegler-Graham K, Mac Kenzie EJ, Ephraim PL, Travison TG, Brookmeyer R. Estimating the prevalence of limb loss in the United States: 2005 to 2050. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 2008; 89(3): 422-429.

Franklin BA. Exercise testing, training and arm ergometry. Sports Medicine. 1985; 2: 100-119.

Bulthuis Y, Drossaers-Bakker W, Oosterveld F, Van der Palen J, Van der Laar M. Arm crank ergometer is reliable and valid for measuring aerobic capacity during submaximal exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2010; 24(10): 2809-2815.

Hol A.T., Eng JJ, Miller WC, Sproule S, Krassioukov AV. Reliability and validity of the six-minute arm test for the evaluation of cardiovascular fitness in people with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 2007; 88: 489-495.

Crapo RO, Enright PL, Zeballos RJ. ATS statement: guidelines for the six-minute walk test. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002; 166: 111-117.

RECK-Technik GmbH & Co.KG. Model MOTOmed® viva 2 [Internet]. 2010 Mei 21 [cited 2019 November 15]. Available from:

Nusdwinuringtyas N, Laksmi W, Bachtiar A. Healthy adult maximum oxygen uptake prediction from a six minute walking test. Med J Indonesia. 2011; 20: 195-200.

Dourado VZ. Referrence equations for the 6-minute walk test in healthy individuals. SBC. 2009.

Mylius CF, Paap D, Takken T. Referrence value for the 6-minute walk test in children and adolescents: A Systematic Review. Expert Review Respiratory Medicine. 2016; 10(12): 1335-1352.

Fardy PS, Webb D, Hellerstein HK. Benefits of arm exercise in cardiac rehabilitation. Physician and Sports Medicine. 1977; 5: 30-41.

Myers J, Arena R, Franklin B, Pina I, Kraus WE, McInnis K, et al. Recommendations for clinical exercise laboratories: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2009; 119: 3144-3161.

Shepard RJ, Bouhlel E, Vandewalle H, Monod H. Muscle mass as a factor limiting physical work. J. Appl. Physiol. 1988; 64: 1472-1479.

Vokac Z, Bell H, Bautz-Holter E, Rodahl K. Oxygen uptake/heart rate relationship in leg and arm exercise, sitting and standing. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1975; 39(1): 54-59.

Kofsky PR, Davis GM, Shephard RJ, Jackson RW. Field testing: assessment of physical fitness of disabled adults. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1983; 51: 109-120.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
SPMRJ by  Unair is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



View SPMRJ Stats