The increased number of osteoblasts and capillaries in orthodontic tooth movement post-administration of Robusta coffee extract

H. Herniyati

Abstract views = 1718 times | downloads = 759 times


Background: The application of orthodontic forces subjects blood capillaries to considerable pressure, resulting in hypoxia on the pressure side. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), expressed in osteoblasts represents an important mitogen that induces angiogenesis. Osteoblasts and blood capillaries play an important role in bone formation. Robusta coffee contains chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid both of which produce antioxidant effects capable of reducing oxidative stress in osteoblasts. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of Robusta coffee extract on the number of osteoblasts and blood capillaries in orthodontic tooth movement. Methods: This research constituted a laboratory-based experimental study involving the use of sixteen male rodents divided into two groups, namely; control group (C) consisting of eight mice given orthodontic mechanical force (OMF) and a treatment group (T) containing eight mice administered OMF and dried Robusta coffee extract at a dose of 20mg/ 100 g BW. The OMF was performed by installing a ligature wire on the maxillary right first molar and both maxillary incisors. In the following stage, the maxillary right first molar was moved to the mesial using Tension Gauze with a Nickel Titanium Orthodontic closed coil spring. Observation was subsequently undertaken on the 15th day by extracting the maxillary right first and second molar with their periodontal tissues. Thereafter, histological examination was performed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining technique to measure the number of osteoblasts and blood capillaries on the mesial and distal periodontal ligaments of the maxillary right first molar. Results: The administration of Robusta coffee extract increases the number of blood capillaries and osteoblasts on both the pressure and tension sides were found to be significantly higher in the T group compared to the C group (p<0,05). Conclusion: Robusta coffee extract increase the number of osteoblasts and blood capillaries, thereby playing a role in improving the alveolar bone remodeling process in orthodontic tooth movement.


orthodontic tooth movement; Robusta coffee; VEGF; capillary; osteoblasts

Full Text:



Domenico M Di, D’apuzzo F, Feola A, Cito L, Monsurrò A, Pierantoni GM, Berrino L, Rosa A De, Polimeni A, Perillo L. Cytokines and VEGF induction in orthodontic movement in animal models. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012; 2012: 1–4.

Krishnan V, Davidovitch Z. Cellular, molecular, and tissue-level reactions to orthodontic force. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006; 129(4): 469.e1-32.

Karsenty G. Transcriptional control of skeletogenesis. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2008; 9: 183–96.

Sprogar S, Vaupotic T, Cör A, Drevensek M, Drevensek G. The endothelin system mediates bone modeling in the late stage of orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Bone. 2008; 43(4): 740–7.

Masella RS, Meister M. Current concepts in the biology of orthodontic tooth movement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006; 129(4): 458–68.

Tan SD, Xie R, Klein-Nulend J, van Rheden RE, Bronckers AL, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM, Von den Hoff JW, Maltha JC. Orthodontic force stimulates eNOS and iNOS in rat osteocytes. J Dent Res. 2009; 88(3): 255–60.

Pearce E. Anatomi dan fisiologi untuk paramedis. Handoyo SY, editor. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama; 2006. p. 102-20.

Greijer AE, van der Wall E. The role of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in hypoxia induced apoptosis. J Clin Pathol. 2004; 57(10): 1009–14.

Niklas A, Proff P, Gosau M, Römer P. The role of hypoxia in orthodontic tooth movement. Int J Dent. 2013; 2013: 1–7.

Adair TH, Montani J-P. Angiogenesis. San Rafael (CA): Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences; 2010. p. 34.

Dandajena TC, Ihnat MA, Disch B, Thorpe J, Currier GF. Hypoxia triggers a HIF-mediated differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into osteoclasts. Orthod Craniofacial Res. 2012; 15(1): 1–9.

Dai J, Rabie AB. VEGF: an essential mediator of both angiogenesis and endochondral ossification. J Dent Res. 2007; 86(10): 937–50.

Krock BL, Skuli N, Simon MC. Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis: good and evil. Genes Cancer. 2011; 2(12): 1117–33.

Andrade I, Taddei SRA, Souza PEA. Inflammation and tooth movement: The role of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Semin Orthod. 2012; 18(4): 257–69.

Richter AE, Arruda AO, Peters MC, Sohn W. Incidence of caries lesions among patients treated with comprehensive orthodontics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011; 139(5): 657–64.

Jiang R, McDonald JP, Fu M. Root resorption before and after orthodontic treatment: a clinical study of contributory factors. Eur J Orthod. 2010; 32(6): 693–7.

Ikeda T, Yamaguchi M, Meguro D, Kasai K. Prediction and causes of open gingival embrasure spaces between the mandibular central incisors following orthodontic treatment. Aust Orthod J. 2004; 20(2): 87–92.

Shenava S, Nayak SK, Bhaskar V, Nayak A. Accelerated orthodontics – a review. Int J Sci c Study. 2014; 1(5): 35–9.

Sukendro S. Keajaiban dalam secangkir kopi. Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo; 2013. p. 144.

Baek KH, Oh KW, Lee WY, Lee SS, Kim MK, Kwon HS, Rhee EJ, Han JH, Song KH, Cha BY, Lee KW, Kang M Il. Association of oxidative stress with postmenopausal osteoporosis and the effects of hydrogen peroxide on osteoclast formation in human bone marrow cell cultures. Calcif Tissue Int. 2010; 87(3): 226–35.

Farah A, Donangelo CM. Phenolic compounds in coffee. Brazilian J Plant Physiol. 2006; 18(1): 23–36.

Banfi G, Iorio EL, Corsi MM. Oxidative stress, free radicals and bone remodeling. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008; 46(11): 1550–5.

Kenisa YP, Istiati I, Juliastuti WS. Effect of robusta coffee beans ointment on full thickness wound healing. Dent J (Maj Ked Gigi). 2012; 45(1): 52–7.

Herniyati. Mekanisme pergerakan gigi ortodonti dan proses remodeling tulang alveolar yang diinduksi gaya mekanis ortodonti akibat pemberian seduhan kopi. Universitas Airlangga; 2016. p. 99-101.

d’Apuzzo F, Cappabianca S, Ciavarella D, Monsurrò A, Silvestrini-Biavati A, Perillo L. Biomarkers of periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement in mice and men: overview and clinical relevance. Sci World J. 2013; 2013: 1–8.

Knop LAH, Shintcovsk RL, Retamoso LB, Grégio AMT, Tanaka O. The action of corticosteroids on orthodontic tooth movement: a literature review. Dental Press J Orthod. 2012; 17(6): 20e1-5.

Schipani E, Maes C, Carmeliet G, Semenza GL. Regulation of osteogenesis-angiogenesis coupling by HIFs and VEGF. J Bone Miner Res. 2009; 24(8): 1347–53.

Kontas-Askar T, Altug ME, Karapehlivan M, Atakisi E, Hismiogullari AA. Is CAPE a therapeutic agent for wound healing? J Anim Vet Adv. 2009; 8(1): 129–33.

Coultas L, Chawengsaksophak K, Rossant J. Endothelial cells and VEGF in vascular development. Nature. 2005; 438(7070): 937–45.

Karamysheva AF. Mechanisms of angiogenesis. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008; 73(7): 751–62.

Roberts WE, Hartsfield JK. Bone development and function: Genetic and environmental mechanisms. Vol. 10, Seminars in Orthodontics. 2004. p. 100–22.

Kawakami M, Takano-Yamamoto T. Local injection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhanced bone formation for tooth stabilization after experimental tooth movement in rats. J Bone Miner Metab. 2004; 22(6): 541–6.

Huang H, Ma L, Kyrkanides S. Effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2016; 149(3): 366–73.

Meikle MC. The tissue, cellular, and molecular regulation of orthodontic tooth movement: 100 years after Carl Sandstedt. Eur J Orthod. 2006; 28(3): 221–40.

Yamaguchi M. RANK/RANKL/OPG during orthodontic tooth movement. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2009; 12(2): 113–9.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

View My Stats