Inhibition effect of cashew stem bark extract (Anacardium Occidentale L.) on biofilm formation of Streptococcus sanguinis

Rizni Amaliah, Sri larnani, Ivan Arie Wahyudi

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/j.djmkg.v45.i4.p212-216
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Abstract


Background: Biofilm is communities of microorganisms attached to solid surface and enclosed in extracellular matrix that protected microorganisms from antibacterial agents and host defense. One of bacteria might have a role in initial colonization of biofilm formation is Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis). Previous studies showed that cashew stem bark extract (Anacardium occidentale L.) can inhibit the growth of Streptococcus strains. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibition effect of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) stem bark ethanol extract on biofilm formation of S. sanguinis. Methods: Streptococcus sanguinis grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) + 2% sucrose medium by using microplate polystyrene 96 wells. The samples were divided into 3 groups, 5% polyethyleneglycol (PEG) as negative control, cashew stem bark extract (concentration 3.125 mg/ml, 6.25 mg/ml, 9.375 mg/ml, and 12.5 mg/ml), and 0.12% chlorhexidine (as positive control). Biofilm was stained by 1% crystal violet. Afterwards, optical density (OD) of samples were measured by microplate reader λ 595 nm. The data of biofilm formation inhibition percentage were analyzed by one way ANOVA and then continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test. Results: The result of one way ANOVA showed that there were significant differences in inhibition of S. sanguinis biofilm formation (p<0.05). LSD test showed that concentration extract 3.125 mg/ml had significant difference with concentration 9.375 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml. Reciprocally, concentration 6.25 mg/ml had significant difference with concentration 9.375 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: Cashew stem bark extract was able to inhibit biofilm formation of S. sanguinis.

Latar belakang: Biofilm merupakan sekumpulan mikroorganisme yang melekat pada permukaan solid dan diselubungi oleh matriks ekstraseluler yang melindungi mikroorganisme dari bahan-bahan antibakteri dan sel-sel pertahanan tubuh. Salah satu bakteri yang berperan pada awal pembentukan biofilm adalah Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis). Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak kulit batang jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale L.) dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri strain Streptococcus. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak etanol kulit batang jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale L.) terhadap pembentukan biofilm S. sanguinis. Metode: Media pertumbuhan S. sanguinis menggunakan Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) + 2% sukrosa yang ditumbuhkan pada microplate polystyrene 96 wells. Kelompok perlakuan dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok yaitu PEG 5% (kontrol negatif), ekstrak kulit batang jambu mete (konsentrasi 3,125 mg/ml, 6,25 mg/ml, 9,375 mg/ml, dan 12,5 mg/ml), dan klorheksidin 0,12% (kontrol positif). Biofilm yang terbentuk diwarnai dengan crystal violet 1%. Kemudian optical density (OD) sampel diukur menggunakan microplate reader λ 595 nm. Data berupa persentase penghambatan pembentukan biofilm dianalisis menggunakan uji one way ANOVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Least Significant Difference (LSD). Hasil: Uji one way ANOVA menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan daya hambat pembentukan biofilm S. sanguinis yang signifikan (p<0,05). Hasil uji LSD menunjukkan konsentrasi 3,125 mg/ml memiliki perbedaan yang signifikan dengan konsentrasi 9,375 mg/ml dan konsentrasi 12,5 mg/ml. Begitu juga dengan konsentrasi 6,25 mg/ml memiliki perbedaan yang signifikan dengan konsentrasi 9,375 mg/ml dan konsentrasi 12,5 mg/ml. Kesimpulan: Ekstrak kulit batang jambu mete dapat menghambat pembentukan biofilm S. sanguinis.


Keywords


Inhibition of biofilm formation; Streptococcus sanguinis; cashew stem bark; Daya hambat pembentukan biofilm; Streptococcus sanguinis; kulit batang jambu mete

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