Combination of Red Coconut Coir (Cocos nucifera L. var rubescens) and Linezolid on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vitro Growth

Trisnawati Trisnawati, Wiwin Retnowati, Danti Nur Indiastuti

Abstract views = 313 times | downloads = 217 times


Introduction: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacterial infections may cause poor manifestations and even increase patients’ morbidity and mortality. The use of antibiotics in the management of infections remains the main therapy. However, ever-increasing antibacterial resistance has prompted researchers to find the solution. This study aimed to determine the effect of a combination of red coconut coir (Cocos nucifera L. var rubescens) in various concentrations and linezolid 10 µ/ml on the growth of MRSA bacteria in vitro.
Methods: The antibacterial activity test method was well-diffusion test. Bacteria was plated in mueller hinton agar for 24 hours at 37oC. The treatment groups were red coconut coir extract and its combination with linezolid 10 µg/ml.  The well-diffusion test results were statistically analyzed with the One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests.
Results: Mean inhibitory zone diameter formed in the C. nucifera L. var rubescens extract test in various concentrations was 12.5 ± 0.36 - 16.2 ± 0.79 mm, while its combination with 10 µg/ml linezolid produced mean inhibitory zone of 15.1 ± 1.31-18.4 ± 0.46 mm. There was a significant difference between groups (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Increasing concentration of C. nucifera L. var rubescens extract was in line with the increase of mean diameter of the inhibitory zone. Extract and antibiotic combination tests showed higher mean diameter zones than the single test of materials. The combination of extract and linezolid has the potential to synergistically prevent antibacterial resistance.


Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Cocos nucifera L. var rubescens, well-diffusion test; antibacterial resistance

Full Text:



Stryjewski ME, Corey GR. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: An evolving pathogen. Clin Infect Dis. (SUPPL. 1). 2014;58

Choo EJ, Chambers HF. Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Infect Chemother. 2016;48(4):267–73.

Chuang YY HY. Molecular Epidemiology of Community Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Asia. Lancet Infect Dis [Internet]. 2013; Available from: (13)70136-1

World Health Organization (WHO). Antibiotic Resistance [Internet]. 2018. Available from:

Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Mari Bersama Atasi Resistansi Antimikroba (Amr). 2016; Available from:

Viju N, Satheesh S, Vincent SGP. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract. Saudi J Biol Sci [Internet]. 2013;20(1):85–91. Available from:

Akinyele TA, Igbinosa EO, Akinpelu DA, Okoh AI. In vitro assessment of the synergism between extracts of Cocos nucifera husk and some standard antibiotics. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed [Internet]. 2017;7(4):306–13. Available from:

Oliveira D, Martins GR, Jorge A, Alviano S, Nascimento RP, Auxiliadora M, et al. Chemical and antimicrobial analysis of husk fiber aqueous extract from Cocos nucifera L. African J Biotechnol. 2013;12(18):2478–83.

Rodrigues S, Pinto GAS. Ultrasound extraction of phenolic compounds from coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell powder. J Food Eng. 2007;80(3):869–72.

Zhao W, Hu Z, Okubo S, Hara Y. Histology of Primary and Secondary Tumors y of Histology of Secondary Histology of Primary Tumor Secondary Embryonal / Yolk Sac Tumor. 2006;45(6):277.

Randhir R, Lin YT, Shetty K. Phenolics, their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in dark germinated fenugreek sprouts in response to peptide and phytochemical elicitors. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(3):295–307.

Piracha A. EDevelopment-assessment as “smart eplanning” for New South Wales (NSW) Australia. CUPUM 2015 - 14th International Conference on Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management. 2015.

L. Suhardiono. Tanaman Kelapa. Yogyakarta: Kanisius; 1993.

Adwan G, Mhanna M. Synergistic effects of plant extracts and antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens. Middle-East J Sci Res. 2008;3(3):134–9.

Pankey G, Ashcraft D, Patel N. In vitro synergy of daptomycin plus rifampin against Enterococcus faecium resistant to both linezolid and vancomycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49(12):5166–8.

Katzung & Trevor’s. Pharmacology Examination & Board Review Eleventh Edition. 11th ed. 2015. 348–353 p.

Bozdogan B, Appelbaum PC. Oxazolidinones: Activity, mode of action, and mechanism of resistance. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004;23(2):113–9.

Skelley J. Open source tactics: Bargaining Power for strategic litigation. J Intellect Prop. 2016;16(1):1–35.

Bravo L. Polyphenols: Chemistry, Dietary Sources, Metabolism, and Nutritional Significance. Nutr Rev. 2009;56(11):317–33.

Jose M, Pai V, Shantaram M, Cyriac M. Antimicrobial properties of coconut husk aqueous extract on cariogenic bacteria. Arch Med Heal Sci. 2013;1(2):126.

Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review. J Pharm Anal [Internet]. 2016;6(2):71–9. Available from:

Ifah Hanik. Aktivitas Antibakteri Kombinasi Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Delima (Punica granatum L.) dan Kloramfenikol Terhadap Staphylococcus aureus Sensitif dan Multiresisten Antibiotik. Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta; 2012.

Li J, Xie S, Ahmed S, Wang F, Gu Y, Zhang C, et al. Antimicrobial activity and resistance: Influencing factors. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8(JUN):1–11.

Ahmad I, Aqil F. In vitro efficacy of bioactive extracts of 15 medicinal plants against ESβL-producing multidrug-resistant enteric bacteria. Microbiol Res. 2007;162(3):264–75.

Dwi Puspita Ayu. Aktivitas Antibakteri Kombinasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Jambu Monyet (Anacardium Occidentale L.) dan Vankomisin Terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dan Staphylococcus epidermidis. Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta; 2013.

Chen C-S. Combinational Synergy of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Peptides. J Transl Proteomics Res. 2017;3:6–11.

Alviano WS, Alviano DS, Diniz CG, Antoniolli AR, Alviano CS, Farias LM, et al. In vitro antioxidant potential of medicinal plant extracts and their activities against oral bacteria based on Brazilian folk medicine. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53(6):545–52.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Trisnawati Trisnawati, Wiwin Retnowati, Danti Nur Indiastuti

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



Creative Commons License

This Journal (E-ISSN:2620-8636) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View BHSJ Stats