Upaya Pembentukan Mekanisme Pertanggungjawaban Lingkungan Transnasional terhadap Polusi Kabut Asap di Asia Tenggara tahun 2015

Muhammad Iqbal Yunazwardi

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jhi.v13i1.17473
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Abstract


Tulisan ini membahas mengenai pentingnya menciptakan gagasan komunikatif dalam menyelesaikan permasalahan kebakaran hutan dan lahan (karhutla) dan kabut asap lintas negara yang terjadi di Asia Tenggara, terutama pasca terjadinya peristiwa tersebut di tahun 2015. Dampak buruk atas kabut asap yang terjadi Asia Tenggara telah membuat banyak kerugian bagi aktor negara dan non negara. Oleh karena itu, gagasan komunikatif penting sebagai dasar pembangunan mekanisme ideal pertanggungjawaban lingkungan transnasional yang mampu mewadahi seluruh kepentingan aktor terdampak atas kabut asap yang terjadi. Gagasan komunikatif diciptakan dengan cara menentukan bagaimana pembentukan berbagai prinsip moral sebagai landasan analitik untuk melihat pentingnya dasar pembentukan mekanisme pertanggungjawaban lingkungan yang ideal. Prinsip moral tersebut antara lain; (1) pencegahan bahaya, (2) inklusifitas, dan (3) keadilan prosedural. Dengan mengidentifikasi prinsip tersebut, aktor negara dan non-negara diharapkan mampu merepresentasikan ruang moral yang menginformasikan gagasan komunikatif pertanggungjawaban lingkungan transnasional. Tujuan normatif yang dihasilkan dari pertanggungjawaban lingkungan transnasional adalah kewajiban berbasis hak, mengikat norma-norma lingkungan dengan hak konstitusional atau hukum HAM berbasis negara.

 

Kata Kunci: pertanggungjawaban lingkungan transnasional, prinsip moral, kabut asap

 

This paper discusses the importance of creating "a communicative notion" in solving the problem of forest and land fires (karhutla) and cross-country haze that occurred in Southeast Asia, especially after the occurrence of events in 2015. The adverse impact of haze that occurred in Southeast Asia has brought many losses for state and non-state actors. Therefore, the communicative notion is important as the basis for building an ideal mechanism for transnational environmental responsibility that is able to accommodate all the interests of the affected actors for the haze that occurs. The communicative notion is created by determining how the formation of various moral principles as an analytical foundation to see the importance of the basis for the establishment of an ideal environmental accountability mechanism. These moral principles include; (1) harm prevention, (2) inclusiveness, and (3) impartialty. By identifying these principles, state and non-state actors are expected to be able to represent the moral space agreed upon by communicative transnational environmental responsibility. Normative objectives resulting from transnational environmental responsibility are rights based on rights, binding environmental norms with constitutional rights or human rights law based on the state.

 

Keywords: Transnational environmental obligations, moral principles, haze pollution

Keywords


pertanggungjawaban lingkungan transnasional, prinsip moral, kabut asap

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