Transfer Learning based Low Shot Classifier for Software Defect Prediction


November 1, 2023


Background: The rapid growth and increasing complexity of software applications are causing challenges in maintaining software quality within constraints of time and resources. This challenge led to the emergence of a new field of study known as Software Defect Prediction (SDP), which focuses on predicting future defect in advance, thereby reducing costs and improving productivity in software industry.

Objective: This study aimed to address data distribution disparities when applying transfer learning in multi-project scenarios, and to mitigate performance issues resulting from data scarcity in SDP.

Methods: The proposed approach, namely Transfer Learning based Low Shot Classifier (TLLSC), combined transfer learning and low shot learning approaches to create an SDP model. This model was designed for application in both new projects and those with minimal historical defect data.

Results: Experiments were conducted using standard datasets from projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Software Research Laboratory (SOFTLAB) repository. TLLSC showed an average increase in F1-Measure of 31.22%, 27.66%, and 27.54% for project AR3, AR4, and AR5, respectively. These results surpassed those from Transfer Component Analysis (TCA+), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA+), and Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis plus (KCCA+).

Conclusion: The results of the comparison between TLLSC and state-of-the-art algorithms, namely TCA+, CCA+, and KCCA+ from the existing literature consistently showed that TLLSC performed better in terms of F1-Measure.

Keywords: Just-in-time, Defect Prediction, Deep Learning, Transfer Learning, Low Shot Learning