Peran Masker/Respirator dalam Pencegahan Dampak Kesehatan Paru Akibat Polusi Udara
[The Role of Mask in Preventing Pulmonary Air Pollution: A Review]
Outdoor air pollution contributed harmful impact to public health. There are several respiratory disorders related to outdoor air pollution such as acute respiratory infection, lung cancer, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and lung function disorder. Respirator is a personnel protective device which has role in the primary intervention step. Currently exist many types of respirators in industrial setting that have specific function to certain hazard exposure in work process. It is difficult to choose one type of respirator that can be implemented in population setting to protect against all air pollutant content. Therefore, it is relevant choosing one respirator type which has the ability to effectively filtrate one of air pollutant content that is the particulate matter. One respirator type, N95 mask has superiority in term of cost and technical use aspects for protecting particulate matter pollutant. Respirator usage effectivity in population setting is an important subject to find out more.
World Health Organizaion. Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health - Fact sheet [Online]. 2014. [Cited 2015 Nov 2] Available from: http:// www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/.
Myers I, Maynard R. Polluted air-outdoors and indoors. Occup med. 2005; 55(6): 432–8.
Loomis D, Huang W, Chen G. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China. Chin J Cancer. 2014; 33(4): 189–96.
Kementrian kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Tanggap Darurat Terhadap Kabut Asap [Online]. 2015. [Cited 2015 Nov 2]. Available from: http://www.depkes.go.id/article/view/15101900002/tanggap-daruratterhadap-kabut-asap.html.
Yoga AT. Penilaian polusi udara. J Respir Indo. 1999; 1: 4–10.
Sbihi H. Evidence Review: Using masks to protect public health during wildfire smoke events. Vancouver: Environmental Health Services; 2014. p. 5.
Samet, JM. Brauer M. Schlesinger R. Source of air pollution. In: Air Quality Guidelines - Global Update. Copenhagen: WHO; 2006. p. 9–30.
Departement of Environment Malaysia. A Guide To Air Pollutant lndex ln Malaysia (API). 4th ed. Kuala Lumpur: Departement of Environment Malaysia; 2000. p. 4–6.
National Environment Agency. FAQs on PSI (Pollutant standard index) [Online]. 2014. [Cited 2015 Nov 2]. Available from: http:// www.nea.gov.sg/anti-pollution-radiation-protection/air-pollutioncontrol/psi/faqs-on-psi#.
Ayres JG. Review of the Air Quality Index: Considerations and Approaches Taken. In: Holgate S, editor. Review of the UK Air Quality Index. London: Health Protection Agency for the Committee on the Medical Effects of Air; 2011.p. 14–19.
Mintz D. Technical Assistance Document for the Reporting of Daily Air Quality-the Air Quality Index (AQI). North Carolina: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 2013.p. 1–11.
Government of Canada. The new Air quality health index: How air pollution affects your health Fact sheet [Online]. 2014. [Cited 2015 Nov 3]. Available from: http://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/home. html.
Kementrian lingkungan hidup dan kehutanan. Indeksi kualitas udara [Online]. 2014. [Cited 2015 Nov 3]. Available from: http://iku.menlhk. go.id/.
Badan pengendalian dampak lingkungan. Pedoman teknis perhitungan dan pelaporan serta informasi indeks standar pencemar udara [Online]. 1998. [Cited 2015 Nov 3. Available from: http://www.cetsuii.org/ BML/Udara/ISPU/ISPU%20(Indeks%20Standar%20Pencemar%20 Udara).htm.
Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geoﬁ sika. Informasi Partikulat (PM10) [Online]. 2015. [Cited 2015 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.bmkg.go.id/BMKG_Pusat/Kualitas_Udara/Informasi_ Partikulat.bmkg.
Committee of the Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly of the American Thoracic Society. Health effects of outdoor air pollution. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996; 153(1): 3–50.
Marino E, Caruso M, Campagna D, Polosa R. Impact of air quality on lung health: myth or reality? Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2015; 6(5): 286–98.
Kim KH, Kabir E, Kabir S. A review on the human health impact of airborne particulate matter. Environ Int. 2015; 74: 136–43.
Guarnieri M, Balmes JR. Outdoor air pollution and asthma. The Lancet. 2014; 383(9928): 1581–92.
Lu F, Xu D, Cheng Y, Dong S, Guo C, Jiang X, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the adverse health effects of ambient PM 2.5 and PM 10 pollution in the Chinese population. Environmental research. 2015; 136: 196–204.
Dong GH, Zhang P, Sun B, Zhang L, Chen X, Ma N, et al. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and respiratory disease mortality in Shenyang, China: a 12-year population-based retrospective cohort study. Respiration. 2012; 84(5): 360–8.
British Colombia. How Forest Fires Affect Air Quality [Online]. 2007. [Cited 2015 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.bcairquality. ca/topics/forest-fires-air-quality.html.
Kenward A, Adams-Smith D, Raja U. Wildﬁ res and air pollution-the hidden health hazards of climate change. New Jersey: Climate central; 2013. p. 11.
Sbihi H. Types of masks. In: Elliott C, Rideout K, ed. Evidence Review: Using masks to protect public health during wildﬁ re smoke events. Vancouver: Environmental Health Services; 2014.p. 3–4.
CDC. Respirator Trusted-Source Information-Section 3: Ancillary Respirator Information [Online]. 2015. [Cited 2015 Nov 7]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/topics/respirators/disp_part/ respsource3basic.html#b.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Respiratory Protection. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor; 2002. p. 1–3.
Bollinger NJ, Schutz RH. Fit testing procedures. In: NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection. Ohio: National Institute for Occupational Safey and Health; 1987. p. 145–70.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA’s Respiratory Protection Standard 29 CFR 1910 134 [Online]. 2015. [Cited 2015 Nov 12]. Available from: https://www.osha.gov/dte/library/ respirators/presentation/.
Bollinger NJ, Schutz RH. Types of respirators. In: NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection. Ohio: National Institute for Occupational Safey and Health; 1987.p.3-54.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA Technical Manual- Section VIII Chapter 2: Respiratory Protection [Online]. 2015. [Cited 2015 Nov 12]. Available from: https://www.osha.gov/ dts/osta/otm/otm_viii/otm_viii_2.html.
Sargent EV, Gallo F. Use of personal protective equipment for respiratory protection. ILAR Journal. 2003; 44(1): 52–6.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. General Respiratory Protection Guidance for Employers and Workers. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor; 2015. p. 1–5.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NIOSH Approved Particulate Filtering Facepiece Respirators [Online]. 2015. [Cited 2015 Nov 12]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/ topics/respirators/disp_part/.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Assigned Protection Factors for the Revised Respiratory Protection Standard. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor; 2009. p. 10–4.
Japuntich DA. Respiratory particulate ﬁ ltration. J Ind Soc Respir Prot. 1984; 2(1): 137–69.
Henneberger PK, Redlich CA, Callahan DB, Harber P, Lemiere C, Martin J, et al. An ofﬁ cial american thoracic society statement: work-exacerbated asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011; 184(3): 368–78.
Ginting M, Yunus F, Antariksa B. Faal paru pada polisi lalu lintas jakarta pusat dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi. J Respir Indo. 2015; 35(2): 97–106.
Wongsurakiat P, Maranetra K, Nana A, Naruman C, Aksornint M, Chalermsanyakorn T. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of trafﬁ c policemen in Thonburi. J Med Assoc Thai. 1999; 82(5): 435–43.
Jung H, Kim J, Lee S, Lee J, Kim J, Tsai P, et al. Comparison of ﬁ ltration efﬁ ciency and pressure drop in anti-yellow sand masks, quarantine masks, medical masks, general masks, and handkerchiefs. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 2014; 14(3): 991–1002.
Basavaraju K TK, Vivek P, Arifuddin MK, Kavitha BS. A Study of Effect of Air Pollution on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Trafﬁ c Police Men with and without Breathing Masks. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2014; 5(5): 243–6.
Pure Living. Why 3M N95 Anti-Pollution Face Masks? What is the “right-ﬁ t” for you? [Online]. 2013. [Cited 2015 Nov 7]. Available from: http://www.purelivingchina.com/2013/02/why-3m-n95-antipollution-face-masks-what-is-the-right-fit-for-you/.
Sbihi H. Evidence on the use of masks as a public health intervention. In: Elliott C, Rideout K, ed. Evidence Review: Using masks to protect public health during wildﬁ re smoke events. Vancouver: Environmental Health Services; 2014. p. 8–9.
Copyright (c) 2017 Haruyuki Dewi Faisal, Agus Dwi Susanto
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
1. The journal allows the author to hold the copyright of the article without restrictions.
2. The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions.
3. The legal formal aspect of journal publication accessibility refers to Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike (CC BY-SA).
4. The Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike (CC BY-SA) license allows re-distribution and re-use of a licensed work on the conditions that the creator is appropriately credited and that any derivative work is made available under “the same, similar or a compatible license”. Other than the conditions mentioned above, the editorial board is not responsible for copyright violation.