CHARACTERISTIC OF CHRONIC COMPLICATIONS IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENT BASED ON ASIAN PERSPECTIVE
Introduction: Indonesia is in the 6th place with the most diabetes mellitus cases in the world. Long term exposure of hyperglycemia that can be seen in chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus patient can cause macrovascular and microvascular complications. This complication contributes to increase mortality rate in Indonesia.
Methods: This study uses cross sectional study by studying the medical record of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, such as age, duration of diabetes mellitus, HbA1C levels, blood pressure, lipid profile, macrovascular and microvascular complication. The data obtained is reviewed descriptively.
Results: Most of type 2 diabetes mellitus patient is between 55-64 years (39.4%), mean 55.75 (SD=9.7). Most of the patients suffers type 2 diabetes mellitus for ≥5 years (61%). Meanwhile, the number of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with uncontrolled HbA1C levels (≥7.0%) is 79%, mean 8.4 (SD= 1.8). Most of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients do not experience hypertension (77.8%) and experience dyslipidemia (94.3%), with the most prevalent lipid abnormality is high LDL (30.9%). Besides, most of type 2 diabetic patients have microvascular complications (57%), with the most common complication is diabetic neuropathy (45.6%), and the other microvascular complications are diabetic nephropathy (33.7%) and diabetic retinopathy (20.7%). While macrovascular complications is 43%, with the most common complication is diabetic foot (29.9%), and the other macrovascular complications are coronary heart disease (27.8%), peripheral arterial occlusive disease (22.9%), and stroke (19.4%).
Alaboud A, Tourkmani A, Alharbi T, Alobikan A, Abdelhay O, Batal S, Alkhashan H, Mohammed U. Microvascular and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetic mellitus in Central, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2016;37.
Al-Halaweh A, Davidovitch N, Almdal T, Cowan A, Khatib S, Nasser-Eddin L, Baradia Z. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus complications among Palestinians with T2DM. Science Direct. 2017;11.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical care in diabetes – 2017. The Journal of Clinical and Applied Research and Education. 2017;40.
International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas Eighth Edition 2017. International Diabetes Federation. 2017.
Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Situasi dan Analisis Diabetes. Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI. 2014.
Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Profil Kesehatan Indonesia tahun 2016. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2017.
Perkumpulan Endokrinologi Indonesia. Konsensus Pengelolaan dan Pencegahan Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2 di Indonesia 2015. PERKENI. 2015
Permana H. Komplikasi kronik dan penyakit penyerta pada diabetes. Medical Care. 2000.
Rhee S, Chon S, Kwon M, Park I, Ahn K, Kim I, Kim S, Lee H, Koh K, Kim D, Baik S, Lee K, Nam M, Park Y, Woo J, Kim Y. Prevalence of Chronic Complications in Korean Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on the Korean National Diabetes Program. Diabetes & Metabolism Journal. 2011;35.
Shrestha HK and Khanal L, Prevalence and Pattern of Dyslipidemia among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in a Tertiary Center Hospital of Nepal. Endocrinology & Metabolism International Journal. 2017;4(3):00084.
Copyright (c) 2022 Current Internal Medicine Research and Practice Surabaya Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) Author
CIMRJ provides immediate open access to its content and is licensed under Creative Commons attribution CC-BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/). The license allows re-distribution and re-use of a licensed work on the conditions that the creator is appropriately credited and that any derivative work is made available under “the same, similar or a compatible license”. Other than the conditions mentioned above, the editorial board is not responsible for copyright violations. his license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use. If you remix, adapt or build upon the material, you must license the modified material under identical terms.