Cognitive, Motor, and Language Assessment in Children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
- HIV-infected children had lower capute scores than normal children.
- HIV child age range 12-24 months almost suffer delayed speech, and were in suspect criteria was founded.
The cognitive, motor and language aspect of HIV-infected children is an important issue affecting their quality of life. The capute scale, divided into Cat and Clams scores, is commonly used to assess children's cognitive, motor, and language functions. This study assessed Cat and Clams’ scores of HIV-infected children. We performed Cat and Clams assessment on 136 children consisting of 68 HIV-infected children and 68 normal children as control aged 0-36 months. The Capute scale examined both groups at the first meeting (first month), and for the rest six months, we evaluated the progress of cognitive, motor, and language development. In the first meeting, we found that HIV-infected children had significantly low capute scores than the control group. The sixth-month Capute score in HIV-infected children was also significantly lower than the control group. HIV-infected children had lower Capute scores than normal children.
Andrade A, Deutsch R, Celano S, et al (2012). Relationships among neurocognitive status, medication adherence measured by pharmacy refill records, and virologic suppression in HIV-infected patients. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 62, 282–292.
Baillieu N, Potterton J (2008). The extent of delay of language, motor, and cognitive development in HIV-positive infants. J. Neurol. Phys. Ther. 32, 118–121.
Bello A, Quartey J, Appiah L (2013). Screening for developmental delay among children attending a rural community welfare clinic in Ghana. BMC Pediatr. 13, 1–7.
Bruck I, Tahan T, Cruz C, et al (2001). Developmental milestones of vertically HIV infected and seroverters children: Follow up of 83 children. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr. 59, 691–695.
Bunyasi E, Coetzee D (2017). Relationship between socioeconomic status and HIV infection: findings from a survey in the Free State and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. BMJ Open 7, 1–9.
Kube D, David A, William M, et al (2000). CAT/CLAMS: its use in detecting early childhood cognitive impairment. Pediatr. Neurol. 23, 208–215.
Levy Y (2018). ‘Developmental Delay’ reconsidered: The critical role of age-dependent, co-variant development. Front. Psychol. 9, 1–10.
Lindsey J, Malee K, Brouwers P, et al (2007). Neurodevelopmental functioning in HIV-infected infants and young children before and after the introduction of protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. Pediatrics 119, 681–693.
McHenry M, McAteer C, Oyungu E (2018). Neurodevelopment in young children born to HIV-infected mothers: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics 141, 1–12.
Nakasuja N, Allebeck P, Agren H, et al (2012). Cognitive dysfunction among HIV positive and HIV negative patients with psychosis in Uganda. PLoS One 7, 1–5.
Ngoma M, Hunter J, Harper J, et al (2014). Cognitive and language outcomes in HIV-uninfected infants exposed to combined antiretroviral therapy in utero and through extended breast-feeding. AIDs 28, 323–330.
Nozyce M, Lee S, Wiznia A, et al (2006). A behavioral and cognitive profile of clinically stable HIV-infected children. Pediatrics 117, 763–770.
Redmond S, Yao T-J, Jonathan S, et al (2016). Longitudinal evaluation of language impairment in youth with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and youth with perinatal HIV exposure. J. Pediatric Infect. Dis. Soc. 5, 33–40.
Rice M, Buchanan A, Sibery G, et al (2012). Language impairment in children perinatally infected with HIV compared to child who were HIV-exposed and uninfected. J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 33, 112–123.
Rie V, Harrington P, Dow A, et al (2007). Neurologic and neurodevelopmental manifestations of pediatric HIV/AIDS: A global perspective. Eur. J. Pediatr. Neurol. 11, 1–9.
Smith R, Malee K, Leighty R, et al (2006). Effects of perinatal HIV infection and associated risk factors on cognitive development among young children. Pediatrics 117, 851–862.
Supadma N, Budiapsari P, Wati K, et al (2020). Correlation of Capute scores with CD4 count among human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia. Open Access Maced. J. Med. Sci. 8, 45–48.
Tahan T, Bruck I, Burger M, et al (2006). Neurological profile and neurodevelopment of 88 children infected with HIV and 84 seroreverter children followed from 1995 to 2002. Brazilian J. Infect. Dis. 10, 322–326.
Vanprapar N, Kongstan N, Tritilanant P, et al (2005). Developmental screening by the cognitive adaptive test/clinical linguistic and auditory milestone scale (CAT/CLAMS) in HIV- infected children. J. Med. Assoc. Thail. 88, 211–214.
Walker C, Perin J, Katz J, et al (2013). Diarrhea as a risk factor for acute lower respiratory tract infections among young children in low income settings. J. Glob. Health 3, 1–8.
Walker S, Pierre R, Christie C, et al (2013). Neurocognitive function in HIV-positive children in a developing country. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 17, 862–867.
Weber V, Radeloff D, Reimers B, et al (2017). Neurocognitive development in HIV-positive children is correlated with plasma viral loads in early childhood. Med. 96, 1–6.
Wedderburn C, Evans C, Yeung S, et al (2019). Growth and neurodevelopment of HIV-exposed uninfected children: A conceptual framework. Curr. HIV/AIDS Rep. 16, 501–513.
Whitehead N, Potterton J, Coovadia A (2014). The neurodevelopment of HIV-infected infants on HAART compared to HIV-exposed but uninfected infants. AIDS Care 26, 497–504.
World Health Organization (2022). AIDS treatment for children Available from https://www.who.int/3by5/paediatric/en/. Accessed January 6, 2022.
Copyright (c) 2022 Folia Medica Indonesiana
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
- Copyright of the article is transferred to the journal, by the knowledge of the author, whilst the moral right of the publication belongs to the author.
- The legal formal aspect of journal publication accessibility refers to Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share alike (CC BY-NC-SA), (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/).
- The articles published in the journal are open access and can be used for non-commercial purposes. Other than the aims mentioned above, the editorial board is not responsible for copyright violation.
The manuscript authentic and copyright statement submission can be downloaded on this form.