Main Article Content



1. This is the first-ever anthropological study on Tagalog people in the Philippines that has established formulae for determining stature using handprint length measurements.
2. This study has generated formulae that are applicable for personal identification purposes within real crime scenes.



Forensic science plays a crucial role in the pursuit of justice, particularly through the identification of physical evidence found at crime scenes, such as human fingerprints and handprints. This study aimed to develop formulae for determining living stature using the handprint anthropometry of Tagalog people, an indigenous ethnic group in the Philippines. A total of 360 Tagalog volunteers, comprising 180 men and 180 women, were recruited. This study excluded subjects who had finger and hand-related diseases, injuries, or were under the age of 18. The materials used were a stadiometer for height measurement, a digital vernier caliper for handprint measurements, and a handprint kit to collect handprints. Five length measurements were collected for each handprint. The length measurement spanned the distance from the middle wrist crease to the tips of each of the five fingers. The data were analyzed statistically using regression analysis (p<0.05) in IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 26.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, N.Y., USA). The analysis results produced equations for determining stature using all the length measurements of the handprints. The study involved the calculation of correlation coefficients (r values) and standard deviations using the stature and handprint lengths of individuals of both genders. The results are presented in the form of tables and figures. The study concluded with the development of regression equations that may be utilized for determining stature based on various handprint length measurements of the Tagalog people. This study represents the first-ever anthropological study conducted on the Philippine Tagalog population within the scope of this research subject matter. The formulae can be applied to actual crime scenes for the purpose of personal identification.


Forensic science living stature handprint Tagalog people medicine

Article Details

Author Biography

Myrtati Dyah Artaria, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine; Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Scopus | Google Scholar | SINTA

How to Cite
Tharmar Nataraja Moorthy, Ivan Nikkimor Lao Dinglasa, & Myrtati Dyah Artaria. (2023). Development of Formulae to Determine Living Stature using Handprint Anthropometry of Tagalog People in the Philippines. Folia Medica Indonesiana, 59(3), 282–288.


  1. Abderrahmane MA, Guelzim I, Abdelouahad AA, et al (2021). Fingerprint measurements-based human height estimation. In 2021 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing, and Technologies (3ICT), pp. 392–7. IEEE. Available at:
  2. Antunes AA, da Paz de Souza AA, Rodrigues BHM, et al (2021). Can orbital cavity be used to estimate stature in human identification? Advances in Anthropology 11, 1–12. doi: 10.4236/aa.2021.111001.
  3. Asadujjaman M, Hossain MG, Rana MS, et al (2021). Stature estimation from handprint measurements: an application to the medicolegal investigation. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences 11, 1. doi: 10.1186/s41935-020-00215-1.
  4. Asha KR, Lakshmi PR, Gangadhar MR (2012). Sex determination from hand dimensions in Indian population. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development 3, 27–30. Available at: %20July-Sept %202012.pdf.
  5. Asif R (2021). Prediction of gender and stature by footprint analysis in Punjab population, Pakistan. International Journal of Forensic Sciences. doi: 10.23880/ijfsc-16000243.
  6. Dembosky JW, Haviland AM, Haas A, et al (2019). Indirect estimation of race/ethnicity for survey respondents who do not report race/ethnicity. Medical Care 57, e28–33. doi: 10.1097/MLR. 0000000000001011.
  7. Elelemi HA, A. Ibrahim M, A. Kornieieva M, et al (2021). Estimation of an individual stature using foot, foot outlines and footprint measurements in adult Saudi population. Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine 3, 199–215. doi: 10.26735/FGXM1161.
  8. Farhan SS, Al-Imam A, Al-Jewari WM (2023). Stature estimation among Iraqis based on anthropometrics of the hands using multivariable regression. Al-Rafidain Journal of Medical Sciences 4, 92–101. doi: 10.54133/ajms.v4i.120.
  9. Grasgruber P, Cacek J, Kalina T, et al (2014). The role of nutrition and genetics as key determinants of the positive height trend. Economics & Human Biology 15, 81–100. doi: 10.1016/j.ehb.2014.07.002.
  10. Hemy N, Flavel A, Ishak N-I, et al (2013). Estimation of stature using anthropometry of feet and footprints in a Western Australian population. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 20, 435–441. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm. 2012.12.008.
  11. Kaifi R, Price L, Chen A, et al (2019). Intra- and interobserver reliability and variability of femoral artery pseudoaneurysm measurements between pre- and postprocessed B-mode sonographic images. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography 35, 87–94. doi: 10.1177/8756479318819993.
  12. Kumar M, Khaira RK (2018). Burnt or charred document-A review. Cikitusi Journal for Multidisciplinary Research 46, 136–159. Available at:
  13. Mishra C (2020). Forensic science under criminal law. iPleaders. Available at: https://blog.
  14. Mishra R, Vardaini D (2022). Assessment of the relationship between footprint length and stature. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine 9, 239–242.
  15. Moorthy TN, Ling AY, Sarippudin SA, et al (2014). Estimation of stature from footprint and foot outline measurements in Malaysian Chinese. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences 46, 136–159. doi: 10.1080/00450618. 2013.825813.
  16. Moorthy TN, Nikkimor LDI, Pravina D, et al (2019). Determination of stature from hand anthropometry among the Visayan population in the Philippines for person identification. Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University 8, 58–65. Available at: https://www.,%20Vol.%208,%20No.%204,%20October-December%2 02019%20Page%2058-65.pdf
  17. Sanli SG, Kizilkanat ED, Boyan N, et al (2005). Stature estimation based on hand length and foot length. Clinical Anatomy 18, 589–596. doi: 10.1002/ca.20146.
  18. Sharma BK, Chand D, Bashir R, et al (2019). Analysis of overlapped tire marks characteristics with the aid of enlarged photography. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering. Available at:
  19. Singh SP (2020). Development of latent finger prints on human skin: A review. International Journal of Engineering Research and. doi: 10.17577/IJERTV9IS060868.
  20. Sí¸rensen MB-, Herlaar K, Keereweer I, et al (2020). Interpol review of shoe and tool marks 2016-2019. Forensic Science International: Synergy 2, 521–239. doi: 10.1016/j.fsisyn.2020.01.016.
  21. Srijith, M M (2019). Estimating stature in females by using the external ear morphometry. Indian Journal of Forensic and Community Medicine 6, 182–187. doi: 10.18231/j.ijfcm.2019.041.
  22. Stewart LF (2017). The process of forensic handwriting examinations. Foresic Research & Criminology International Journal. doi: 10.15406/frcij.2017.04.00126.
  23. Talabis DA, Manay EJ V, Babierra AL, et al (2013). A numerical model of Philippine population growth: child policy, quantitative insights and challenges. IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences 8, 45–71. Available at:
  24. Ubelaker DH, Khosrowshahi H (2019). Estimation of age in forensic anthropology: historical perspective and recent methodological advances. Forensic Sciences Research 4, 1–9. doi: 10.1080/20961790.2018.1549711.
  25. Usman M, Naseer A, Baig Y, et al (2019). Forensic toxicological analysis of hair: a review. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences 9, 17. doi: 10.1186/s41935-019-0119-5.
  26. Vernon W, Reel S, Howsam N (2020). Examination and interpretation of bare footprints in forensic investigations. Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science Volume 10, 1–14. doi: 10.2147/RRFMS.S241 264.
  27. Zhang W, Liu S, Ma P (2022). Experimental investigation on stab-resistant properties of co-woven-knitted fabric. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 17, 155892502210905. doi: 10.1177/15589250221090502.