Main Article Content



  1. Computer vision syndrome (CVS) that causes dry eyes becomes a health problem for college students.

  2. Sodium hyaluronate eyedrops can be used as one of the CVS therapy strategies for students suffering from CVS.



The use of computers and mobile devices is increasing. Computers and mobile devices help our daily work or study. However, prolonged use of them may cause computer vision syndrome (CVS). Nowadays, CVS becomes a health problem for everyone working with computers or mobile devices including college students because it causes dry eyes. It may disrupt reading, doing professional work, or using a computer which is important for college students to complete academic tasks. Sodium hyaluronate can be used to overcome the dry eye problem due to CVS. To assess the effectiveness of sodium hyaluronate eyedrops on students suffering from CVS, pre- and post-administration of sodium hyaluronate was measured for two weeks. Inclusion criteria for this study were college students aged 20-35 years, using a computer for >2 hours a day, not using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), not consuming drugs, or having a disease that affects tear production and bearing no pregnancy. Parameters assessed include tear break-up time using the Tear Break-Up Time (TBUT) test, tear production using the Schirmer I test, the number of clinically subjective symptoms, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores. Data were analyzed using student paired t-tests or Wilcoxon Rank Test. There were statistically significant differences before and after the TBUT (4.4 vs 6.7 seconds; p<0.0001); the Schirmer I Test (4 vs 6 mm; p<0.05), and the number of clinically subjective symptoms (3 vs 0 clinically subjective symptoms; p<0.0001). The OSDI scores did not show statistical differences before and after administration of sodium hyaluronate (27 vs 21; p>0.05), but there was a positive impact from moderate to mild dry eye. Sodium hyaluronate eyedrops can be used as one of the CVS therapy strategies for students suffering from CVS.


Computer vision syndrome sodium hyaluronate Tear Break Up Time test Schirmer I test clinically subjective symptoms OSDI score healthy lifestyle

Article Details

How to Cite
Zulkarnain, B. S., Loebis, R., & Aryani, T. (2022). Sodium Hyaluronate Eye Drops for College Students with Computer Vision Syndrome in Indonesia. Folia Medica Indonesiana, 58(4), 293–297.


  1. Adane F, Alamneh YM, Desta M (2022). Computer vision syndrome and predictors among computer users in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Trop Med Health 50, 26.
  2. Alamri A, Amer KA, Aldosari AA, et al (2022). Computer vision syndrome: Symptoms, risk factors, and practices. J Fam Med Prim Care 11, 5110.
  3. Alatawi SK, Allinjawi K, Alzahrani K, et al (2022). Self-reported student awareness and prevalence of computer vision syndrome during COVID-19 pandemic at Al-Baha University. Clin Optom Volume 14, 159–72.
  4. Altalhi AA, Khayyat W, Khojah O, et al (2020). Computer vision syndrome among health sciences students in Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and risk factors. Cureus 12, 1–6.
  5. Ang BCH, Sng JJ, Wang PXH, et al (2017). Sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eye syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 7, 9013.
  6. Bali J, Neeraj N, Bali R (2014). Computer vision syndrome: A review. J Clin Ophthalmol Res 2, 61.
  7. Blehm C, Vishnu S, Khattak A, et al (2005). Computer Vision Syndrome: A Review. Surv Ophthalmol 50, 253–62.
  8. Cheema A, Aziz T, Mirza SA, et al (2012). Sodium hyaluronate eye drops in the treatment of dry eye disease: An open label, uncontrolled, multi-centre trial. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad-Pakistan 24, 14–6.
  9. Groß D, Childs M, Piaton J-M (2018). Comparative study of 0.1% hyaluronic acid versus 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose in patients with dry eye associated with moderate keratitis or keratoconjunctivitis. Clin Ophthalmol Volume 12, 1081–8.
  10. Gunawan IPFA, Lidia K, Telussa AS, et al (2022). Correlation between online gaming duration and dry eyes complaints and quality of life using DEQS questionnaire. Vis Sci Eye Heal J 22, 29–33.
  11. Hwang H Bin, Ku YH, Kim EC, et al (2020). Easy and effective test to evaluate tear-film stability for self-diagnosis of dry eye syndrome: blinking tolerance time (BTT). BMC Ophthalmol 20, 438.
  12. Iqbal M, Elzembely H, Elmassry A, et al (2021). Computer vision syndrome prevalence and ocular sequelae among medical students: A university-wide study on a marginalized visual security issue. Open Ophthalmol J 15, 156–70.
  13. Jaiswal S, Asper L, Long J, et al (2019). Ocular and visual discomfort associated with smartphones, tablets and computers: what we do and do not know. Clin Exp Optom 102, 463–77.
  14. Kim DJ, Lim C-Y, Gu N, et al (2017). Visual fatigue induced by viewing a tablet computer with a high-resolution display. Korean J Ophthalmol 31, 388.
  15. Kusumawaty S, Syawal S, Sirajuddin J (2015). Computer vision syndrome pada pegawai pengguna komputer di PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk Makassar (thesis). Universitas Hasanuddin.
  16. Labetoulle M, Benitez-del-Castillo JM, Barabino S, et al (2022). Artificial tears: Biological role of their ingredients in the management of dry eye disease. Int J Mol Sci 23, 2434.
  17. Lemp M (2008). Management of dry eye disease. Am J Manag Care 14, S88-101.
  18. Logaraj M, Madhupriya V, Hegde S (2014). Computer vision syndrome and associated factors among medical and engineering students in Chennai. Ann Med Health Sci Res 4, 179.
  19. Maheshwary N, Saeed N, Qazi Z, et al (2013). Effectiveness of sodium hyaluronate eye gel in patients with dry eye disease: A multi-centre, open label, uncontrolled study. Pakistan J Med Sci 29, 1055–8.
  20. McAlinden C, Gao R, Wang Q, et al (2017). Rasch analysis of three dry eye questionnaires and correlates with objective clinical tests. Ocul Surf 15, 202–10.
  21. McMonnies CW (2018). Tear instability importance, mechanisms, validity and reliability of assessment. J Optom 11, 203–10.
  22. Miljanović B, Dana R, Sullivan DA, et al (2007). Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life. Am J Ophthalmol 143, 409–15.
  23. Mowatt L, Gordon C, Santosh ABR, et al (2018). Computer vision syndrome and ergonomic practices among undergraduate university students. Int J Clin Pract 72, e13035.
  24. Park S-Y, Yang S, Shin C-S, et al (2019). Long-term symptoms of mobile phone use on mobile phone addiction and depression among Korean adolescents. Int J Environ Res Public Health 16, 3584.
  25. Park Y, Song JS, Choi CY, et al (2017). A randomized multicenter study comparing 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% sodium hyaluronate with 0.05% cyclosporine in the treatment of dry eye. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 33, 66–72.
  26. Patil A, Bhavya, Chaudhury S, et al (2019). Eyeing computer vision syndrome: Awareness, knowledge, and its impact on sleep quality among medical students. Ind Psychiatry J 28, 68.
  27. Al Rashidi S, Alhumaidan H (2017). Computer vision syndrome prevalence, knowledge and associated factors among Saudi Arabia University Students: Is it a serious problem? Int J Heal Sci 11, 17–9.
  28. Reddy SC, Low C, Lim Y, et al (2013). Computer vision syndrome: a study of knowledge and practices in university students. Nepal J Ophthalmol 5, 161–8.
  29. Sen A, Richardson S (2007). A study of computer-related upper limb discomfort and computer vision syndrome. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo) 36, 45–50.
  30. Şimşek C, Doğru M, Kojima T, et al (2018). Current management and treatment of dry eye disease. Turkish J Ophthalmol 48, 309–13.