Luluk Lady Laily, Santi Martini, Kurnia Dwi Artanti, Sri Widati

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.295-303
Abstract views = 361 times | downloads = 277 times


Lung adenocarcinoma is one type of lung cancers that increases in number every year globally. Smoking is one of the risk factors for lung adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to determine the distribution of the risk factors of lung adenocarcinoma in patients. The risk factors observed in this study included age, gender, smoking history, number of cigarettes, types of cigarettes, and smoking duration. This study was descriptive and performed a cross sectional design. The study’s population was all lung cancer patients who were treated at Dr. Soetomo District General Hospital Surabaya. The samples were drawn using the accidental sampling technique from the population that met the inclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria for this respondents were patients who were diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma and were willing to be interviewed. While the exclusion criteria involved patients with incomplete medical record data and patients who were not willing to be interviewed. The results indicate that the majority of lung adenocarcinoma patients at Dr. Soetomo District General Hospital Surabaya were male who were light smokers, diagnosed at more than 50 years old. Most of them used filter cigarettes and had smoked for more than 30 years.


Keywords: Lung adenocarcinoma, risk factors, cross-sectional.



Lung adenocarcinoma, risk factors, cross-sectional.

Full Text:



Cooper, W. A., Lam, D. C., Toole, S. A., Minna, J. D., 2013. Molecular Biology of the Lung Cancer, Radiology and Oncology, 39(3), p. 197.

Clarke, D. 2017. Faith and Hope, Australasian Psychiatry, 11(2), pp. 164–168. doi: 10.1046/j.1039-8562.2003.00550.x.

GLOBOCAN., 2012. Estimated Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide in 2012.

Guntulu, A., Metintas, Æ M., Metintas, Æ S., Yildirim, Æ H., 2007. Lung Cancer in Individuals Less Than 50 Years of Age, pp. 279–286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00408-007-9021-2

Hernowo, B. S. 2012. Karsinoma paru, pp. 1–10.

Hu, Y., Chen, G. 2015. Pathogenic Mechanisms of Lung Adenocarcinoma in Smokers and Non-Smokers Determined by Gene Expression Interrogation, Oncology Letters, 10(3), pp. 1350–1370. doi: 10.3892/ol.2015.3462.

Ji, X., Gui, J., Han, Y., Brennan, P., Li, Y., McKay, J., Caporaso, N. E., Bertazzi, P. A., Landi, M. T., Amos, C. I., 2015. The Role of Haplotype in 15q25.1 Locus in Lung Cancer Risk: Results of Scanning Chromosome 15, Carcinogenesis, 36(11), pp. 1275–1283. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgv118

Kenfield, S. A.,Wei, E. K., Stampfer, M. J., Rosner, B. A., Colditz, G. A., 2008. Comparison of Aspects of Smoking Among the Four Histological Types of Lung Cancer, Tobacco Control, 17(3), pp. 198–204. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2007.022582

Koifman, S., Bencko, V., Eluf-Neto, J., Castellsagué, X., Lagiou, P., Zaridze, D., Gaborieau, V., Hung, R. J., Field, J. K., Lathrop, M., Conway, D. I., Elvestad, M. B., Holcátová, I., Skorpen, F., Merletti, F., Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N., Lowry, R., Canova, C., Hveem, K., Fernandez, L., McKay, J. D., Kjaerheim, K., Liloglou, T., Chabrier, A., Vatten, L., Liu, G., Brennan, P., Barzan, L., Heath, S., Fabianova, E., Lissowska, J., Metspalu, A., Curado, M. P., Healy, C., Znaor, A., Janout, V., Xinarianos, G., Hashibe, M., Boffetta, P., Agudo, A., Macfarlane, T. V., Rudnai, P., McLaughlin, J., Mates, D., Benhamou, S., Foretova, L., Lips, E. H., Matos, E., Menezes, A., Study, E., 2009. Association between a 15q25 Gene Variant, Smoking Quantity and Tobacco-Related Cancers Among 17 000 Individuals, International Journal of Epidemiology, 39(2), pp. 563–577. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyp288

Lee, P. N., Forey, B. A., Coombs, K. J., Lipowicz, P. J., Appleton, S., 2016. Time Trends in Never Smokers in the Relative Frequency of the Different Histological Types of Lung cancer, in Particular Adenocarcinoma, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. Elsevier Ltd, 74, pp. 12–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.11.016

Lortet-Tieulent, J., Weiderpass, E., Soerjomataram, I., Rutherford, M., Ferlay, J., Bray, F. 2014. International Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Subtype: Adenocarcinoma Stabilizing in Men but Still Increasing in Women, Lung Cancer. Elsevier Ireland Ltd, 84(1), pp. 13–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2014.01.009

Mäkinen, J., 2017. Lung Adenocarcinoma : Histopathological Features and Their Association with Patient Outcome.

Marugame, T., Sobue, T., Nakayama, T., Suzuki, T., Kuniyoshi, H., Sunagawa, K., Genka, K., Nishizawa, N., Natsukawa, S., Kuwahara, O., Tsubura, E., 2004. Filter Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer Risk; a Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Japan, British Journal of Cancer, 90(3), pp. 646–651. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6601565

Oktaviyanti, I. K. 2015. Mutasi EGFR pada Pemeriksaan Sitologi Adenokarsinoma Paru, Berkala Kedokteran, 11, pp. 213–219.

Ombao, H., Ito, H., Koestler, D. C., Tanaka, H., Soda, M., Mor, V., Matsuo, K., Sugiyama, H., Fulton, J., Shibata, A., Sobue, T., Fujita, M. 2010. Nonfilter and Filter Cigarette Consumption and the Incidence of Lung Cancer by Histological type in Japan and the United States: Analysis of 30-year Data from Population-Based Cancer Registries, International Journal of Cancer, 128(8), pp. 1918–1928. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25531

Paris, C., Clement-Duchene, C., Vignaud, J. M., Gislard, A., Stoufflet, A., Bertrand, O., Thiberville, L., Grosdidier, G., Martinet, Y., Benichou, J., Hainaut, P., 2010. Relationships between Lung Adenocarcinoma and Gender, Age, Smoking and Occupational Risk Factors: A Case-Case Study, Lung Cancer. Elsevier Ireland Ltd, 68(2), pp. 146–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2009.06.007

Putra, A. C., Nurwidya, F., Andarini, S., Zaini, J., Syahruddin, E., Hudoyo, A., Jusuf, A., 2015. Masalah Kanker Paru pada Lanjut Usia, Cdk-234, 42(11), pp. 833–837.

Roszkowski, K. 2001. Lung Cancer in Patients Under 50 Years Old, 33, pp. 203–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5002(01)00199-4

Samet, J. M., Avila-Tang, E., Boffetta, P., Hannan, L. M., Olivo-Marston, S., Thun, M. J., Rudin, C. M., 2009. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers: Clinical Epidemiology and Environmental Risk Factors, Clinical Cancer Research, 15(18), pp. 5626–5645. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0376

Schaal, C., Chellappan, S. P. (2014) Nicotine-Mediated Cell Proliferation and Tumor Progression in Smoking-Related Cancers, Molecular Cancer Research, 12(1), pp. 14–23. https://doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-13-0541

Seki, T., Nishino, Y., Tanji, F., Maemondo, M., Takahashi, S., Sato, I., Kawai, M., Minami, Y., 2013. Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer Risk According to Histologic Type in Japanese Men and Women, Cancer Science, 104(11), pp. 1515–1522. https://doi.org/10.1111/cas.12273

Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance. 2017. The Tobacco Control Atlas ASEAN Region. Bangkok: SEATCA

Travis, W. D., Brambilla, E., Nicholson, A. G., Yatabe, Y., Austin, J. H.M., Beasley, M. B., Chirieac, L. R., Dacic, S., Duhig, E., Flieder, D. B., Geisinger, K., Hirsch, F. R., Ishikawa, Y., Kerr, K. M., Noguchi, M., Pelosi, G., Powell, C. A., Tsao, M. S., Wistuba, I., 2015. The 2015 World Health Organization Classification of Lung Tumors: Impact of Genetic, Clinical and Radiologic Advances since the 2004 Classification, Journal of Thoracic Oncology. International

Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 10(9), pp. 1243–1260. https://doi.org/10.1097/JTO.0000000000000630

Wakelee, H. A., Feskanich, D., West, D. W., Yong, L. C., Holmberg, L., Gomez, S. L., Kolonel, L. N., Chang, E. T., Clarke, C. A., Gould, M. K., Keegan, Theresa H., 2007. Lung Cancer Incidence in Never Smokers, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25(5), pp. 472–478. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.07.2983

Wang, W., Yin, W., Shao, W., Jiang, G., Wang, Q., Liu, L., Liu, D., Wang, Z., Zhu, Z., Chen, H., He, J., 2014. Comparative study of systematic thoracoscopic lymphadenectomy and conventional thoracotomy in resectable non-small cell lung cancer, 6(1), pp. 45–51.

Whitsett, T. G., Inge, L., Dhruv, H. D., Cheung, P. Y., Weiss, G. J., Ross, M., Winkles, J. A., Tran, N. L., 2013. Molecular Determinants of Lung Cancer Metastasis to the Central Nervous System, 2(4), pp. 273–283.

World Health Organization. 2014. Cancer Country Profile: Indonesia. Jenewa: WHO.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 The Indonesian Journal of Public Health

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



View My Stats