Maskulinitas dan Pandemi COVID-19: Studi Kasus Pakistan

Dias Pabyantara Swandita Mahayasa, Anggi Koenjaini Putri

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jhi.v13i2.21293
Abstract views = 1138 times | downloads = 1351 times

Abstract


This research aims to elaborate on the question of why male patients
of COVID-19 dominating globally (data are taken per 24 June 2020).
Depart from the hegemonic masculinity concept, the argument proposed
in this writing is that traditional gender role which positioned men as
breadwinner is one of the vital factors to the high infection among men.
Men who are supposed to work outside their house is arguably more
vulnerable to the virus. The argument is extracted from both Pakistan
experience against COVID-19. According to UN Women, this country of
top the list of countries who has the highest disparity among male and
female patient, reaching more than 70 percent of male and 30 percent for
the female. The statistic goes hand in hand with the notion of traditional
gender roles rooted deep within the community.

Keywords


COVID-19, Gender, Masculinity, Pakistan

Full Text:

PDF

References


Buku atau Bagian dalam Buku

Aslam, Maleeha, 2012. Gender Based Explosions: The Nexus

Between Muslim Masculinities, Jihadist Islamism and

Terrorism. New York: United Nations University Press.

Basow, S., A., 1992. Gender Stereotypes and Roles (3rd ed.).

Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks.

Flood, Michael, 2005. Men As Victims Of Violence. International

Encyclopedia of Men.

Gordon, A., A., 1996. Transforming Capitalism and Patriarchy:

Gender and Development in Africa. London: Lynne Rienner

Publishers.

Hussain, et al., 2015. Gender Stereotyping in Family: An

Institutionalized and Normative Mechanism in Pakhtun

Society of Pakistan. Sage Publication.

Monshipouri, Mahmood dan Samuel, Amjad, 1995. Development

and Democracy in Pakistan. University of California.

Sadzali, Munawir, 1993. Islam dan Tata Negara Ajaran dan

Pemikiran. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia Press. Pp 228.

Siddiqi, Dina, 2014. A Note on Gender and Militarism in South Asia;

Gender and Militarism Analyzing the Links to Strategize for

Peace. Women Peacemakers Program

Swatay, A., Z., 2012. Analysis of the Pressures of Masculinity: The

Case of Pakhtun Men/Boys in district Swat. South Asian

Network to Address Masculinity, Swat.

Zaman, RM., Stewart, SM., dan Zaman, TR., 2006. Pakistan:

Culture, Community, and Fami lial Obligations In a Muslim

society. In: Georgas J, Berry JW, De Vijver FRV, Kagitcibasi

C, Poortinga YH, eds. Families a Cross Cultures: a 30 Nation

Psychological Study. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University

Press. Pp. 42734.

Zaidi, Akbar, S.. 2008. The Political Economy of Military Rule in

Pakistan: The Musharraf Regime. Working Paper No.31.

Institute of South Asian Studies, National University of

Maskulinitas dan Pandemi COVID-19: Studi Kasus Pakistan

Singapore. Pp 18.

Artikel Jurnal

Ahmed, Ishfaq et al., 2017. Occupational Health and Safety Issues

in The Informal Economic Segment of Pakistan: A Survey of

Construction Sites. International Journal of Occupational

Safety and Ergonomics. ISSN: 1080-3548. Taylor and

Francis Group.

Aslam, Maleeha, 2014. Islamism and Masculinity: Case Study

Pakistan. HSR Vol. 39.

Bhanbhro, Sadiq, et al, 2013. “Karo Kari-The Murder of Honour

in Sindh Pakistan: An Ethno graphic Study”. International

Journal of Asian Social Science. 3(7):1467-1484

Faridi, Z., Muhammad & Chaudhry, S., Imran, 2009. An Analysis

of the Determinants of Male Labor Force Participation and

Employment Status in Pakistan: The Case of Bahawalpur

District”. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS). 29 (2):

-208.

Hasnain, et al., 2012. Young Adults’ Perceptions on Life Prospects

and Gender Roles as Important Factors to Influence Health

Behaviour: A Qualitative Study from Karachi, Pakistan.

Global Journal of Health Science. 4(3).

Iqbal, Hamid et al., 2012. Gender Discrimination: Implications for

Pakistan Security. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social

Science. ISSN: 2279-0845. 1(4): 16-25.

Javaid, U., Omer, S., dan Jabeen, S., 2012. Rife manifestation

of gender segregation in Indian society: Evidence from

textbooks. Journal of South Asian Studies, 27: 21-34

Khattak, S, See., 1995. Militarization, Masculinity and Identity in

Pakistan: Effects on Women. in N.S. Khan & A. Sherbano

(Eds.). Unveiling the Issues. Lahore: Asr Publications. (1):

-64.

Nasrullah, Muazzam dan Bhatti, A., Junaid, 2012. Gender

Inequalities and Poor Health Outcomes in Pakistan: A Need of Priority for the National Health Research Agenda.

Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan.

(5): 273-274.

Qasim, Z., M., 1998. Sectarianism in Pakistan: The Radicalization

of Shi’i and Sunni Identities. Modern Asian Studies, 32(3):

–716.

Sama, E., Iziah, et al., 2020. Circulating Plasma Concentrations

of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 in Men and Women

with Heart Failure and Effects of Renin-Angiotensin–

Aldosterone Inhibitors. European Heart Journal. 41(19).

Salway S, Jesmin S dan Rahman S, 2005. Women’s employment

in urban Bangladesh: A challenge to gender identity?.

Development and Change. 36(2):317-349.

Instrumen Legal

UNESCO Islamabad, 2010. Guidelines for Mainstreaming Gender

in Literacy Materials. ISBN 978-969-8035-10-5 (Print

version) ISBN 978-969-8035-11-2 (Electronic version).

USAID, 2016. Masculinity in Pakistan A Formative Research Study.

United States Government, Aurat Foundation.

Laporan Penelitian

Khasanah, Uswatun , 2014. Biografi Benazir Bhutto di Pakistan

(Kajian Terhadap Karir Politik Tahun (1984-2007). Skripsi

Jurusan Sejarah dan Kebudayaan Islam Fakultas Adab dan

Ilmu Budaya Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga.

Publikasi Daring

Amal, A., Taufik, 2001. Pelajaran Berharga dari Pakistan. Dalam

Islam Liberal Com. [daring]. Tersedia dalam http// Islamlib.

com/ id/ artikel/ pelajaran berharga dari Pakistan. [Diakses

Juli 2020].

Maskulinitas dan Pandemi COVID-19: Studi Kasus Pakistan

Jurnal Hubungan Internasional □ Tahun XIII, No. 2, Juli - Desember 2020

Chaudhry, Naghman, 2012. Pakistan’s First Military Coup: Why

Did The First Pakistani Coup Occur And Why Does It

Matter?. Tesis, Monterei, California: Naval Postgraduate

School Hal.60. [daring]. Tersedia dalam http://calhoun.

nps.edu/bitstream/handle/10945/6773/12Mar_Chaudhry.

pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. [Diakases pada 10 Juli 2020].

Global Health 50/50, 2020. Sex, Gender and COVID-19. [daring].

Tersedia dalam https://globalhealth5050.org/covid19/mensex-

gender-and-covid-19/. [Diakses 10 Juli 2020].

Guan, W. et al., 2020. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus

Disease 2019 in China. New England Journal of Medicine.

hal. NEJMoa2002032. [daring]. Tersedia dalam http://

dx.doi.org/ 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032 [Diakses 10 Juli

.

Goverment of Pakistan, 2020. Pakistan Cases Details. [daring].

Tersedia dalam http://covid.gov.pk/stats/pakistan. [Diakses

Juli 2020].

Labour Force Survey 2017-18. Pakistan Economic Survey 2018-

; Population, Labour Force and Employment. [daring]

Tersedia dalam https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&sour

ce=web&rct=j&url=http://www.finance.gov.pk/survey/

chapters_19/12Population.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwiux4aHm9X

qAhX36nMBHaQKCvkQFjADeg QIAxA J&usg=AOvVaw1m_

gSny1jxraVulyNxx&cshid=1595020684099. [Diakses 17 Juli

.

Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan, 2018.

Pakistan Employment Trend 2018. [daring] Tersedia dalam

http://www.pbs.gov.pk. [Diakses 10 Juli 2020].

Reuters, 2020. Men Have High Levels of Enzyme Key to COVID-19

Infection, Study Finds. [daring]. Tersedia dalam https://

www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-Ace2men/

men-have-high-levels-of-enzyme-key-to-covid-19-infectionstudy-

findsidUSKBN22M0UA. [Diakses 17 Juli 2020].

Rozan, ICRW, Partners for Prevention, 2010. Understanding

Masculinities: A Formative Research on Masculinities

and Gender based Violence in Peri-urban area in

Rawalpindi Pakistan. [daring]. Tersedia dalam www.

partners4prevention.org. [Diakses 10 Juli 2020]

Dias Pabyantara S.M. dan Anggi Koenjaini Putri

Plecher, H., 2020. Employment by economic sector in Pakistan

[daring]. Tersedia dalam https://www.statista.com/

statistics/383781/employment-by-economic-sector-inpakistan/.

[Diakses 17 Juli 2020].

WHO, 2020. Dasbor WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19).

[daring]. Tersedia dalam https://covid19.who.int/. [Diakses

Juli 2020].

UN OCHA, 2020. Pakistan Humanitarian Response Plan For

COVID-19 Pandemic 2020. [daring]. Tersedia dalam http://

www.unocha.org/. [Diakses 10 Juli 2020].

UN Women, 2020. COVID-19: Emerging Gender Data and Why It

Matters. [daring]. Tersedia dalam https://data.unwomen.

org/resources/covid-19-emerging-gender-data-and-why-itmatters.

[Diakses 10 Juli 2020].

________, 2020. Gender and COVID-19; Surveys Show That

COVID-19 Has Gendered Effects in Asia and The Pacific.

[daring]. Tersedia dalam https://data.unwomen.org/

resources/surveys-show-covid-19-has-gendered-effectsasia-

and-pacific. [Diakses 10 Juli 2020].

Wenham, C., J. Smith dan R. Morgan, 2020. COVID-19: the

Gendered Impacts of the Outbreak. Lancet Publishing

Group. [daring]. Tersedia dalam http://dx.doi.org/10.1016 /

S01406736(20)30526-2. [Diakses 10 Juli 2020].


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Hubungan Internasional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

e-ISSN: 2715-1565

https://intra2.lipi.go.id/issn/data/1569559056.png

p-ISSN: 1411-9382

https://intra2.lipi.go.id/issn/data/1180429770.png


Jurnal Hubungan Internasional is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Indexed By: