Sepsis: Antibiotic Resistances of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacterial in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Siti Nurul Jannah, Muhammad Vitanata Arfijanto, Musofa Rusli, Agung Dwi Wahyu Widodo

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/juxta.V12I12021.29-37

Abstract views = 714 times | downloads = 666 times

Abstract


Introduction: Sepsis is a systemic infection that causes multiorgan failure and death. The death rate that is caused by sepsis is increasing. This high value of death has a correlation with the resistance of antibiotics. However, increased antibiotic resistance is not balanced with new research about antibiotics. As a consequence, it causes difficulties in handling sepsis patients who need antibiotic 1-2 hours after diagnosis is enforced.

 

Methods: This was a descriptive study with case study design to analyze medical records of the patients, evaluating the pattern of bacterial resistance to antibiotic in 221 patients with sepsis with 240 blood isolates to identify.

 

Results: From 221 patients identified as sepsis, there were 97 male patients (43.9%) and 124 female patients (56.1%), mostly between 18-59 years old (63.8%), with the highest level in female (54.8 %) and elderly (66.3%). The bacteria that caused the most sepsis were gram-positive. The most species in gram-positive are Staphylococcus haemolyticus (16.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (12.5%), and the most species in gram-negative is Escheriichia coli (13.3%). The most sensitive antibiotics in gram-positive bacteria were Piperacillin-Tazobactam (100%), Daptomycin (99.2%), and Clindamycin (99.2%). The sensitive antibiotics in gram-negative bacteria were Amikacin (85.9%), Cefoperazone (84.6%), and Piperacillin-Tazobactam (84.1%).

 

Conclusion: The most sensitive antibiotics in gram-positive bacteria were Piperacillin-Tazobactam, Daptomycin, and Clindamycin. The sensitive antibitics in gram-negative bacteria were Amikacin, Cefoperazone, and Piperacillin-Tazobactam.

 


Keywords


Sepsis; antibiotic resistance; tertiary care hospital; Staphylococcus haemolyticus; Escheriichia coli

Full Text:

PDF

References


Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016; 315: 801-10.

Levy MM. Introduction. In: Daniels R and Nutbeam T, (eds.). ABC of Sepsis. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, p. 1.

Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Lidicker J, Clermont G, Carcillo J and Pinsky MR. Epidemiology of Severe Sepsis in the United States: Analysis of Incidence, Outcome, and Associated Costs of Care. Critical Care Medicine. 2001; 29: 1303-10.

Nachtigall I, Tamarkin A, Tafelski S, et al. Impact of Adherence to Standard Operating Procedures for Pneumonia on Outcome of Intensive Care Unit Patients*. Critical Care Medicine. 2009; 37: 159-66.

Engel C, Brunkhorst FM, Bone HG, et al. Epidemiology of Sepsis in Germany: Results from a National Prospective Multicenter Study. Intensive Care Med. 2007; 33: 606-18.

Pradipta IS, Sodik DC, Lestari K, et al. Antibiotic Resistance in Sepsis Patients: Evaluation and Recommendation of Antibiotic Use. North American Journal of Medical Sciences. 2013; 5: 344-52.

Suharjo J and Cahyono J. Terapi Antibiotik Empiris pada Pasien Sepsis Berdasarkan Organ Terinfeksi. Dexa Medica. 2007; 20: 85-90.

Burgess DS and Abate BJ. Antimicrobial Regimen Selection. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG and Posey LM, (eds.). Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p. 1920-1.

Garnacho-Montero J, Ortiz-Leyba C, Herrera-Melero I, et al. Mortality and Morbidity Attributable to Inadequate Empirical Antimicrobial Therapy in Patients Admitted to the ICU with Sepsis: A Matched Cohort Study. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2008; 61: 436-41.

Indonesia KKR. Kemenkes dan Kementan Berkomitmen untuk Kendalikan Resistensi Antimikroba. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 2016.

Viswanathan VK. Off-Label Abuse of Antibiotics by Bacteria. Gut Microbes. 2014; 5: 3-4.

Michael CA, Dominey-Howes D and Labbate M. The Antimicrobial Resistance Crisis: Causes, Consequences, and Management. Frontiers in Public Health. 2014; 2: 145-.

Morse S, Brooks G, Carroll K, Butel J and Mietzner T. Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg's Medical Microbiology, 25th edition. 2010.

Cantas L, Shah SQ, Cavaco LM, et al. A Brief Multi-Disciplinary Review on Antimicrobial Resistance in Medicine and Its Linkage to the Global Environmental Microbiota. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2013; 4: 96.

von Nussbaum F, Brands M, Hinzen B, Weigand S and Häbich D. Antibacterial Natural Products in Medicinal Chemistry--Exodus or Revival? Angewandte Chemie (International ed in English). 2006; 45: 5072-129.

Paknikar SS and Narayana S. Newer Antibacterials in Therapy and Clinical Trials. North American Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012; 4: 537-47.

Eachempati SR, Hydo L and Barie PS. Gender-Based Differences in Outcome in Patients with Sepsis. Archives of Surgery (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 1999; 134: 1342-7.

Kumalo A, Kassa T, Mariam Z, Daka D and Henok A. Bacterial Profile of Adult Sepsis and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South West Ethiopia. iMedPub Journals. 2016; 10: 3.

Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S and Moss M. The Epidemiology of Sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2003; 348: 1546-54.

Finfer S, Bellomo R, Lipman J, French C, Dobb G and Myburgh J. Adult-Population Incidence of Severe Sepsis in Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Units. Intensive Care Med. 2004; 30: 589-96.

Ngonzi J, Bebell LM, Fajardo Y, et al. Incidence of Postpartum Infection, Outcomes and Associated Risk Factors at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018; 18: 270.

Carbajal-Guerrero J, Cayuela-Domínguez A, Fernández-García E, et al. [Epidemiology and Long-Term Outcome of Sepsis in Elderly Patients]. Medicina Intensiva. 2014; 38: 21-32.

Mayr FB, Yende S, Linde-Zwirble WT, et al. Infection Rate and Acute Organ Dysfunction Risk as Explanations for Racial Differences in Severe Sepsis. JAMA. 2010; 303: 2495-503.

Martin GS, Mannino DM and Moss M. The Effect of Age on the Development and Outcome of Adult Sepsis. Critical Care Medicine. 2006; 34: 15-21.

Angus DC and Van der Poll T. Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock. The New England journal of medicine. 2013; 369: 840-51.

Kang-Birken SL and DiPiro JT. Sepsis and Septic Shock. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG and Posey LM, (eds.). Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p. 2137.

Alberti C, Brun-Buisson C, Burchardi H, et al. Epidemiology of Sepsis and Infection in ICU Patients from an International Multicentre Cohort Study. Intensive Care Med. 2002; 28: 108-21.

Mayr FB, Yende S and Angus DC. Epidemiology of Severe Sepsis. Virulence. 2014; 5: 4-11.

Karimzadeh I, Mirzaee M, Sadeghimanesh N and Sagheb MM. Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Gram-Positive Bacteria during Three Consecutive Years at the Nephrology Ward of a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Shiraz, Southwest Iran. Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2016; 5: 238-47.

Trevor A, Katzung B, Masters S and Knuidering-Hall M. Katzung & Trevor's Pharmacology Examination and Board Review,10th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education, 2012.

Katzung BG, Masters SB and Trevor AJ. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. New York; London: McGraw-Hill Medical ; McGraw-Hill [distributor], 2012.

Guevara N, Guzmán M, Merentes A, et al. Patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de bacterias gramnegativas aisladas de infecciones del tracto urinario en Venezuela: Resultados del estudio SMART 2009-2012. Revista chilena de infectología. 2015; 32: 639-48.

Forbes BA, Sahm DF, Weissfeld AS and Bailey WR. Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier Mosby, 2007.

Llewelyn MJ and Cohen J. Tracking the Microbes in Sepsis: Advancements in Treatment Bring Challenges for Microbial Epidemiology. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007; 44: 1343-8.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2021 Siti Nurul Jannah, Muhammad Vitanata Arfijanto, Musofa Rusli, Agung Dwi Wahyu Widodo

INDEXED BY:

   

             

Creative Commons License

JUXTA (p-ISSN: 1907-3623, e-ISSN: 2684-9453) is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 View JUXTA Stats