A Review of the Use of Aaker’s Methodology within the Brand Personality Construct: A Review of Extant Literature

Oladipupo Folorunsho Ajeyalemi, Bolajoko Nkemdilim Dixon-Ogbechie

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/tijab.V4.I1.2020.35-51
Abstract views = 897 times | downloads = 507 times

Abstract


Anthropomorphism is the belief that brands can possess human characteristics, which raises a tendency to assign human traits to inanimate objects. It is on this premise that Brand Personality takes its roots.  Several studies in the measurement and influence of Brand Personality abound leading to increasing arguments on the most appropriate methods to be used to measure Brand Personality.  However, Aaker’s methodology stands out prominently in the Brand Personality domain.  This study attempts to review the Brand Personality literature to identify the extent that this methodology has been used.  The objectives of this study are to identify the scope and limitation of Aaker’s (1997) Brand Personality construct, identify the literature on Brand Personality and identify the use of Aaker’s (1997) methodology in scale development. Using a qualitative design, consecutive sampling was used to analyze the identified literature on Brand Personality. The resulting data was analyzed using frequency and pictorial analysis and several tables presenting the review of the literature were developed.


Keywords


Brand Personality, taxonomy, desk research, consecutive sampling, pictorial analysis

Full Text:

PDF (ENGLISH)

References


Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 347. http://doi.org/10.2307/3151897

Ahmad, A., & Thyagaraj, K. S. (2014). Brand Personality and Brand Equity Research : Past Developments and Future Directions. The IUP Journal of Brand Management, 9, 3,

Assael, H. (1998) Consumer Behavior. Cincinnati, OH: Southwestern.

Avis, M. (2012). Brand personality factor based models: A critical review. Australasian Marketing Journal, 20(1), 89–96. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ausmj.2011.08.003

Barrick, M.R.; Mount, M.K. (1991) The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis, Personnel Psychology, 44, 1, Spring 1991;

Belk, R.W. (1988), Possessions and the extended self. Journal of Consumer Research, 15 No. 2, 139-68.

Bergami, M. & Bagozzi, R.P. (2000), Self-categorization, affective commitment and group self-esteem as distinct aspects of social identity in the organization. British Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 555-77.

Bhattacharya, C.B., Rao, H. and Glynn, M.A. (1995), Understanding the bond of identification: an investigation of its correlates among art museum members. Journal of Marketing, 59, 46-57.

Biel, A.L. (1993) Converting image into equity. In: Aaker, D.,

Biel, A. (Eds.), Brand Equity and Advertising. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Biel, A. L. (2003). Brand equity and advertising: An overview. In D. A. Aaker & A. L. Biel (Eds.), Brand equity & advertising: Advertising’s role in building strong brands (p. 4).Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Binder, J.K. & Belz, F.M. (2014) Sustainable Entrepreneurship: What It Is It? Kyrö, Paula (ed.): Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Boyer, P. (1996). What makes anthropomorphism natural: Intuitive ontology and cultural representations. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 2(1), 83–97.

Brucks, M. (1985), “The effects of product class knowledge on information search behavior”, Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 1-16.

Carlson, B. D., Donavan, D. T., & Cumiskey, K. J. (2009). Consumer-brand relationships in sport: brand personality and identification. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 37(4), 370–384. http://doi.org/10.1108/09590550910948592

Čáslavová, E., & Petráčková, J. (2011). The Brand Personality Of Large Sport Events, 43, 91–106.

Chan-Olmsted, S. M., & Cha, J. (2007). Branding Television News in a Multichannel Environment: An Exploratory Study of Network News Brand Personality. International Journal on Media Management, 9(4), 135–150.

Chan-Olmsted, S. M., & Cha, J. (2008). Exploring the Antecedents and Effects of Brand Images for Television News: An Application of Brand Personality Construct in a Multichannel News Environment. International Journal on Media Management, 10(1), 32–45. http://doi.org/10.1080/14241270701820481

Chaudhuri, A. & Holbrook, M. (2001) The chain effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65, (2), 81–93.

Cho, C., Lee, J., & Tharp, M. (2001). Different forced-exposure levels to banner advertisements. Journal of Advertising Research, 41(4), 45–56.

Cronin, J.J. & Taylor, S.A. (1992) Measuring service quality: a re-examination and extension. Journal of Marketing, 56, 55–68.

Currier, D.R. (1984) Elements of research in physical therapy, 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.

Das, G. (2014). Impacts of retail brand personality and self-congruity on store loyalty: The moderating role of gender. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(2), 130–138. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2013.07.011

Das, G., Guin, K. K., & Datta, B. (2012). Developing Brand Personality Scales : A Literature Review, IX(2).

De Moya, M., & Jain, R. (2013). When tourists are your “ friends” : Exploring the brand personality of Mexico and Brazil on Facebook. Public Relations Review, 39(1), 23–29. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2012.09.004

De Pelsmacker, P., Geuens, M., & Van den Bergh, J. (2007). Marketing communications, London: Pearson Education.

Dimanche, F. & Samdahl, D.M. (1994) Leisure as symbolic consumption: a conceptualization and prospectus for future research. Leisure Sciences; 6(2): 119–29.

Dodds, B.K., Monroe, K.B. and Grewal, D. (1991), Effect of price, brands, and store information on buyers’ product evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research, 28, 307-19.

Donavan, D.T., Carlson, B. & Zimmerman, M. (2005a), Personality influences on spectator need for affiliation and identification. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14, 1, 31-42.

Donavan, D.T., Janda, S. & Maxham, J.G (2005b), The impact of brand connection and intimacy on identification and spending. Proceedings of the American Marketing Association Summer Educator’s Conference, San Francisco, CA.

Ekinci, Y., Sirakaya-Turk, E., & Preciado, S. (2013). Symbolic consumption of tourism destination brands. Journal of Business Research, 66(6), 711–718. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.09.008

Farquhar, P. H. (1989), Managing Brand Equity. Marketing Research, 1, 3, 24-33

Fennis, B.M., Pruyn, AThH. & Maasland, M. (2005) Revisiting the malleable self: brand effects on consumer self-perceptions of personality traits. In: Menon G, Rao A, editors. Advances in Consumer Research, 32, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research; 1–7.

Fennis, B. M., & Pruyn, a. T. H. (2007). You are what you wear: Brand personality influences on consumer impression formation. Journal of Business Research, 60(6), 634–639. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.06.013

Fournier, S. (1998), Consumer and their brands: developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24, 4, 343-73.

Gallarza, M., & Gil Saura, I. (2006). Value dimensions, perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty: An investigation of university students' travel behaviour. Tourism Management, 27(3), 437–452.

Geuens, M., Weijters, B., & De Wulf, K. (2009). A new measure of brand personality. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26(2), 97–107. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2008.12.002

Glińska, E., & Kilon, J. (2014). Desirable Traits of the City Brand Personality in the Opinion of Managers for the Promotion of the City Government in Poland1. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 156, 418–423. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.11.214

Halliday, J. (1996), Chrysler Brings Out Brand Personality with 97’ Ads, Advertising Express, 3.

Hassan, H., & Rahman, M. S. (2012). The Impact of Hypermarket Corporate Brand Extensions on Brand Personality: A Conceptual Analysis of Malaysian Market. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(12), 138–146. http://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v7n12p138

Hawkins, D., Best, R. & Coney, K. (2001), Consumer Behaviour: Building Marketing Strategy, New York Irwin: McGraw-Hill.

Heere, B. (2010). A New Approach to Measure Perceived Brand Personality Associations Among Consumers, Sport Marketing Quarterly 19(1), 17–24.

Herbst, U., & Merz, M. a. (2011). The industrial brand personality scale: Building strong business-to-business brands. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(7), 1072–1081. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2011.09.003

Homburg, C., Wieseke, J., & Hoyer, W. D. (2009). Social identity and the service-profit chain. Journal of Marketing, 73(2), 38–54.

Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y., & Uysal, M. (2006). Destination image and destination personality: An application of branding theories to tourism places. Journal of Business Research, 59(5), 638–642. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.01.001

Hultman, M., Skarmeas, D., Oghazi, P., & Beheshti, H. M. (2015). Achieving tourist loyalty through destination personality, satisfaction, and identification. Journal of Business Research. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.06.002

Hysi, V. (2013). Brand personality as important element in creating strong brand equity. Conference Paper presented at The 1st International Conference on “Research and Education – Challenges Towards the Future” (ICRAE2013), 24-25 May 2013.

Kapferer, J. N. (2008). The new strategic brand management. London: Kogan Page.

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualising, measuring and managing

customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57, 1-22.

Keller, K. (2002), Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring and Management Brand Equity. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Keller, K. L., & Aaker, D. A. (1998). The Impact of Corporate Marketing on a Company’s Brand Extensions. Corporate Reputation Review, 1 (4), 356-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.crr.1540057

Kim, C.K., Han, D. & Park, S. (2001) The effect of brand personality and brand identification on brand loyalty: applying the theory of social identification. Japanese Psychological Research, 43 (4), 195–206.

Kim, D., Magnini, V. P., & Singal, M. (2011). The effects of customers’ perceptions of brand personality in casual theme restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(2), 448–458. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2010.09.008

Klabi, F. & Debabi, M. (2011). Brand Personality and Emotional Attitudes : The Case of Mobile Telephone Operators, 245–262. http://doi.org/10.1080/08911762.2011.592460

Kumar, V., & Nayak, J. K. (2014). The measurement & conceptualization of destination personality. Tourism Management Perspectives, 12, 88–93. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2014.09.002

Levy, S. R., Stroessner, S. J., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Stereotype formation and endorsement: The role of implicit theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1421–1436.

Lin, C. A., Atkin, D. J., & Abelman, R. (2002). The influence of network branding on audience affinity for network television. Journal of Advertising Research, 42(3), 19–32.

Liu, Z., Sam, S., Hallak, R., & Liang, M. (2016). Chinese consumers ’ brand personality perceptions of tourism real estate fi rms. Tourism Management, 52, 310–326. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.06.022

Mathur, P., Jain, S. P., & Maheswaran, D. (2012). Consumers’ implicit theories about personality influence their brand personality judgments. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(4), 545–557. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2012.01.005

Mael, F.A. & Ashforth, B.E. (1992), “Alumni and their alma mater: a partial test of the reformulated model of organisational identification”, Journal of Organisational Behavior, 13, 103-23.

McDougall, G. H. G., & Fry, J. N. (1975). Combining two methods of image measurement. Journal of Retailing, 50, 53–61.

Muniz, K. M. (2012). Brand Personality Dimensions in the Brazilian Context, Brazilian Administration Review (June), 168–188.

Norman W.T. (1963) Towards a Adequate Taxonomy of Personal Attributes: Replicated Factor Structure in Peer Nomination Personality Ratings. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 53, 775 – 782.

Ong, B.S. & Horbunluekit, S. (1997) The impact of a Thai cultural show on Thailand's destination image. Am Business Review; 15(2): 97–103.

Raffelt, U., Schmitt, B., & Meyer, A. (2013). Marketing function and form: How functionalist and experiential architectures affect corporate brand personality. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 30(3), 201–210. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2013.02.002

Romaniuk, J. (2008) Comparing Methods of Measuring Brand Personality Traits. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 16, No. 2 (Spring, 2008), 153-161

Rojas-Méndez, J. I., Murphy, S. a., & Papadopoulos, N. (2013). The U.S. brand personality: A Sino perspective. Journal of Business Research, 66(8), 1028–1034. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.12.027

Pantin-sohier, G., Decrop, A., & Brée, J. (2005). An Empirical Investigation of the Product ’ s Package as an Antecedent of Brand Personality, 1(1), 69–80.

Park, J. K., & John, D. R. (2012). Capitalizing on brand personalities in advertising: The influence of implicit self-theories on ad appeal effectiveness. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(3), 424–432. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.05.004

Pitt, L. F., Opoku, R., Hultman, M., Abratt, R., & Spyropoulou, S. (2007). What I say about myself: Communication of brand personality by African countries. Tourism Management, 28(3), 835–844. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2006.06.003

Plaks, J. E., Stroessner, S. J., Dweck, C. S., & Sherman, J. W. (2001). Person theories and attention allocation: Preferences for stereotypic versus counterstereotypic information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(6), 876–893.

Plummer, J.T. (1985) How personality makes a difference. Journal of Advertising Research, 24 (6):27–31.

Roth, M.S. and Romeo, J.B. (1992), “Matching product category and country image perceptions: a framework for managing country-of-origin effects”, Journal of International Business Studies, 23, 3, 477-97.

Russell, J.A. (1980) A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology; 39 (6):1161–78.

Seimiene, E., & Kamarauskaite, E. (2014). Effect of Brand Elements on Brand Personality Perception. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 156, 429–434. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.11.216

Shaw, E.H., and Jones, D.G.B. (2005). The history of schools of marketing thought. Marketing Theory, 5(3), 239 – 281.

Sheena, & Naresh, G. (2012). Do Brand Personalities Make a Difference to Consumers? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 37, 31–37. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.272

Sirgy, M.J. (1982) Self-concept in consumer behavior: a critical review. Journal of Consumer Research; 9: 287–300.

Sirgy, M. J., Grewal, D., Mangleburg, T. F., Park, J., Chon, K., Claiborne, C. B., et al. (1997). Assessing the predictive validity of two methods of measuring selfimage congruence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(3), 229-241.

Sirgy, M. J., & Su, C. (2000). Destination image, self-congruity, and travel behavior: toward an integrative model. Journal of Travel Research, 38, 340-352.

Tajfel, H. & Turner, J. (1985) The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In:Worchel S, Austin W, editors. Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall; 6-24.

Tsiotsou, R. H., & Veloutsou, C. (2011). The Role of Brand Personality on Brand Relationships and Tribal Behavior : An Integrative Model, EMAC Conference 2011.

Usakli, A., & Baloglu, S. (2011). Brand personality of tourist destinations: An application of self-congruity theory. Tourism Management, 32(1), 114–127. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.06.006

Valette-Florence, R., & De Barnier, V. (2013). Towards a micro conception of brand personality: An application for print media brands in a French context. Journal of Business Research, 66(7), 897–903. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.12.008

Veblen T. (1994) The theory of the leisure class. New York: Macmillan.

Wang, X.& Yang, Z. (2008) Does Country-of-Origin Matter in the Relationship between Brand Personality and Purchase Intention in Emerging Economies? Evidence from China’s Auto Industry. International Marketing Review. 25, 4, 458-474.

Wang, X., Yang, Z., & Liu, N. R. (2009). The Impacts of Brand Personality and Congruity on Purchase Intention: Evidence From the Chinese Mainland’s Automobile Market. Journal of Global Marketing, 22(3), 199–215. http://doi.org/10.1080/08911760902845023

Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: A structural model. Tourism Management, 26(1), 45–56.

Yorkston, E., Nunes, J., & Matta, S. M. (2010). The malleable brand: The role of implicit theories in evaluating brand extensions. Journal of Marketing, 74(1), 80–93.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Oladipupo Folorunsho Ajeyalemi, Bolajoko Nkemdilim Dixon-Ogbechie

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

This journal is indexed by

 

     BASE - Bielefeld Academich Search Engine          

 

 

View My Stats

 

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License