Business and Human Rights Concerns in the Indonesian Textile Industry

Iman Prihandono, Fajri Hayu Religi

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/ydk.v34i3.14931
Abstract views = 822 times | views = 518 times

Abstract


Indonesia is the tenth largest textile exporter in the world. The textile industry has long been the major industry to absorb labour force in the country. The textile industry substantially contributes to the national economic growth by employing 3.58 million workers, or 21.2 per cent of the total labour force in the manufacturing industry. The textile business has been growing over the previous decade. Based on the Bank of Indonesia report, this industry significantly contributes to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Indonesia. The contribution increased from Rp96.3trillion (US$7billion) in 2010 to Rp139.4trillion (US$10.2billion) in 2015. However, the textile industry in Indonesia does not only positively contribute to the country’s economic growth, it also creates negative impacts, such as environmental issues. As will be explained further, these environmental impacts include environmental damage caused to the Citarum River and Sukoharjo. The textile industry’s contribution to pollution is also high at a global level. Among the G20 countries, Indonesia is ranked 2nd for the highest levels of water pollution caused by the textile industry with 29.25 per cent, slightly below Turkey (32.21 per cent). Even though most of the international brands, such as GAP, H&M and Inditex, have already adopted human rights standards and policies, there are still many cases that show the failure of these companies to uphold human rights. For this reason, the implementation of international standards is needed to achieve a more sustainable textile industry. This article discusses business and human rights concerns in relation to the Indonesian textile industry. It addresses several environmental issues caused by the textile industry, discusses human rights standards and policies in the textile industry, and finally shows possible ways of implementing such international standards (i.e. Eco Label and the Bangladesh Accord) in Indonesia.

Keywords


Textile Industry, Human Rights, Pollution, International Textile Industry CSR Standards.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh, ‘About the Accord’ (bangladeshaccord.org) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

——, ‘Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh’ (bangladeshaccord.org, 2013) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

——, ‘2018 Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh: May 2018’ (bangladeshaccord.org, 2017) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

Araminta Setyawati, ‘Analysis: Indonesian Textile Industry Faces Formidable Challenges’ (thejakartapost.com, 2015) LINK accessed 6 April 2018.

Arie Sunaryo, ‘Protes Bau Busuk PT.RUM, Warga Bakar Ban Dan Blockade Akses Masuk Pabrik’ (merdeka.com, 2018) LINK accessed 12 April 2018.

Aruna Kashyap, ‘Bangladesh Accord: New Phase Should Protect Unions’ (hrw.org, 2017) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

——, ‘When Clothing Labels Are a Matter of Life or Death’ (hrw.org, 2018) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Bayu Ardi Isnanto, ‘Menyoal Bau Busuk PT RUM Yang Menahun Dan Nasib Warga Sukoharjo’ (news.detik.com, 2018) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

——, ‘Terdampak Bau Busuk Limbah PT.RUM, Warga Demo Di DPRD Sukoharjo’ (news.detik.com, 2018) LINK accessed 12 April 2018.

Better Buying, ‘H’ (betterbuying.org) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

——, ‘What We Do’ (betterbuying.org) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

Better Buying and ETI, ‘Improving Garment Sector Buying Practices in Bangladesh’ (betterbuying.org, 2018) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

Chandni Vatvani, ‘The Toxic Waste That Enters Indonesia’s Citarum River, One of the World’s Most Polluted’ (channelnewsasia.com, 2018) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Comfort Chigozie Godson-ibeji JUC, ‘Consequences of Environmental Pollution on Agricultural Productivity in Developing Countries: A Case of Nigeria’ (2016) 5 International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research.

Debbie M. Price, ‘Worse for Wear: Indonesia’s Textile Boom. The Rise of Fabric and Textile Manufacturing Brought Jobs to Indonesia’s West Java Province. It Also Brought Object Pollution to the Citarum River’ (undark.org, 2017) LINK accessed 9 April 2018.

Dee Waluyo, ‘Tumbuh Melampaui 3 Persen, Industri TPT.Pekerjakan 4 Juta Orang’ (jpp.go.id, 2018) LINK accessed 6 April 2018.

Dhio Faiz, ‘Saat Kahatex Tantang Bupati Sumedang Cabut Izin Limbah’ (cnnindonesia.com, 2018) LINK accessed 11 April 2018.

Dikanaya Tarahita and Muhammad Zulfikar Rakhmat, ‘Indonesia’s Citarum: The World’s Most Polluted River’ (thediplomat.com, 2018) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Dorel Paraschiv CT and RP, ‘The Textile Industry and Sustainable Development: A Holt-Winters Forecasting Investigation for the Eastern European Area’ (2015) 7 Sustainability 1284.

Ecolabel Index, ‘All Ecolabels in Indonesia’ (ecolabelindex.com) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

——, ‘Eco-Labels in Indonesia’ (ecolabelindex.com, 2017) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Eko Waluyo MP, ‘Mengenal Perkembangan Ekolabel Indonesia’ (bernas.id, 2016) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

Ellen Wulfhost, ‘Pleas for Help Sewn into Zara Clothes by Unpaid Workers “Just the Tip of the Iceberg”, Warns Human Rights Expert’’ (independent.co.uk, 2017) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

Environmental Justice Atlas, ‘Textile Factories in Indonesia Pollute Water in Cikijing River, Tributary of Citarum River, Indonesia’ (ejatlas.org, 2017) LINK accessed 9 April 2018.

Erlano Putra, ‘PT RUM Klaim Sudah Laksanakan Kesepakatan’ (sukoharjonews.com, 2019) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Ethical Trading Initiative, ‘For More than 20 Years, ETI and Our Members Have Been a Driving Force in Ethical Trade.’ (ethicaltrade.org) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

European Commission Environment, ‘EU Ecolabel: Reducing the Ecological Impact of Textile Dyeing’ (ec.europa.eu) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

FAO, ‘Prospects for the Environment’ (fao.org) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Fathiyah Wardah, ‘Greenpeace Tuding PT Gistex Cemari Sungai Citarum’ (voaindonesia.com, 2013) LINK accessed 7 April 2019.

Ganug Nugroho Adi, ‘More Activists Protesting Air Pollution in Sukoharjo Arrested’ (thejakartapost.com, 2018) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Gap Inc, ‘Code of Vendor Conduct’ (gapinc.com, 2016) LINK accessed 17 April 2018.

GAP Inc, ‘Human Rights Policy’ (gapinc.com) LINK accessed 17 April 2018.

Global Ecolabelling Network, ‘What Is Ecolabelling?’ (globalecolabelling.net) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

——, ‘Information Paper: Introduction to Ecolabelling’ (globalecolabelling.net, 2004) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

Greenpeace Indonesia, ‘Puluhan Tahun Mencemari, 3 Perusahaan Teksil Digugat’ (greenpeace.org, 2015) LINK accessed 8 April 2018.

H&M Group, ‘Code of Conduct’ (sustainability.hm.com) LINK accessed 19 April 2018.

——, ‘Human Rights Policy’ (sustainability.hm.com) LINK accessed 19 April 2018.

——, ‘The H&M Group Sustainability Report 2016’ (sustainability.hm.com, 2016) LINK accessed 19 April 2018.

Hendra Friana, ‘Polisi Tangkap Aktivis Lingkungan Solo Atas Dugaan Perusakan Pabrik’ (tirto.id, 2018) LINK accessed 12 April 2018.

Hesty Imaniar, ‘5 Terdakwa Perusakan PT RUM Sukoharjo Divonis’ (jateng.tribunnews.com, 2018) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Imam Yuda, ‘Polda Ambil Sampel Udara Yang Terkena Limbah PT.RUM’ (jatengpos.com, 2018) LINK accessed 12 April 2018.

Inditex, ‘Code of Conduct for Manufacturers and Suppliers Inditex Group’ (inditex.com) LINK accessed 20 April 2018.

——, ‘Our Protection of Human Rights’ (inditex.com) LINK accessed 20 April 2018.

——, ‘Right to Wear’ (inditex.com) LINK accessed 20 April 2018.

——, ‘Policy on Human Rights’ (inditex.com, 2016) LINK accessed 20 April 2018.

Indonesia Investments, ‘Textile Industry Indonesia’ (indonesia-investments.com, 2016) LINK accessed 6 April 2018.

Jakarta Post, ‘Environmentalists Stage Rally in Front of Garment Company’ (thejakartapost.com, 2018) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Konradus Epa, ‘Indonesian Villagers Battle Air, Water Pollution’ (international.la-croix.com, 2018) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Larry C. Price and Debbie M. Price, ‘The Death of the Citarum River: Indonesia’s Most Toxic Waterway’ (pulitzercenter.org, 2017) LINK accessed 7 April 2018.

M Faisal, ‘Nasib Buruh H&M Tak Secerah Produknya’ (tirto.id, 2018) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Media Indonesia, ‘PT.RUM Komit Benahi Sistem Limbah’ (mediaindonesia.com, 2017) accessed 12 April 2018.

Ministry of Industry Republic of Indonesia, ‘Industry Facts & Figures 2017’ (kemenperin.go.id, 2017) 26 LINK accessed 6 April 2018.

OECD, ‘Environmental Labeling and Information Schemes; Policy Perspectives’ (oecd.org, 2016) accessed 21 April 2018.

Official Journal of the European Union, ‘Regulation (EC) No 66/2010 of The European Parliament and of The Council’ (eur-lex.europa.eu) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

——, ‘Commission Decision (EU) 2017/1392’ (eur-lex.europa.eu, 2017) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

Oxford Business Group, ‘Indonesia Securing Trade Deals and Shifting Its Industrial Offerings towards Diverse and High Quality’ (oxfordbusinessgroup.com) LINK accessed 6 April 2018.

——, ‘Indonesia’s Textile Industry Looks to State for Boost’ (oxfordbusinessgroup.com, 2016) LINK accessed 7 April 2018.

PT. Sri Rejeki Isman Tbk, ‘History’ (sritex.co.id) LINK accessed 11 April 2018.

Sherr Rinn, ‘Hukum Perdata Untuk Pencemar Lingkungan, Hukum Pidana Untuk Warga’ (tirto.id, 2018) LINK accessed 12 April 2018.

The Jakarta Post, ‘Dwell-Time Target Set for Two Days in 2017’ (thejakartapost.com, 2017) LINK accessed 29 March 2019.

——, ‘Dwell Time at Ports Worsens to 3.5 Days: Official’ (thejakartapost.com, 2017) LINK accessed 29 March 2019.

The Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia, ‘Sertifikasi KAN Dan Ekolabel Indonesia’ (menlh.go.id) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.

United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner, ‘Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights’ (ohchr.org, 2011) LINK accessed 4 April 2019.

Vibian Hendriksz, ‘Gap and H&M Fail to Uphold Human Rights in Supplier Factories’ (fashionunited.uk, 2016) LINK accessed 21 April 2018.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Yuridika

Yuridika (ISSN: 0215-840X | e-ISSN: 2528-3103) by http://e-journal.unair.ac.id/index.php/YDK/index under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Statcounter :

View My Stats

Yuridika has been indexed by:

 

Yuridika Official Partner :

 

Full Indexed Service