Characteristics of Party autonomy in a Transnational Electronic Consumer Contract

Moh. Ali, Agus Yudha Hernoko

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/ydk.v35i1.15105
Abstract views = 1135 times | downloads = 622 times

Abstract


International contracts involving legal subjects between countries will affect the law chosen by the parties. Electronic contracts are different than conventional contracts in general. Prominent characteristics includevirtual, paperless and borderless. Determination of legal choices cannot be made with a link-point approach that is generally applicable to conventional transactions. The typical e-commerce characteristics should be special treatment for special contracts. The virtual nature that knows no national borders is difficult to determine in which country the legal event takes place. Paperless nature often overrides accuracy in transactions, especially with regard to legal choice clauses and forum choices.In addition, another character is that electronic transactions are made in standard form and are arranged for the purpose of take or leave it. Generally, business actors have determined the choice of law and the choice of the forum. Electronic contracts place consumers in a weak bargaining position (the weaker party). There are active limitations in determining the legal choice clause, causing consumers not to have an unequal bargaining power, giving rise to a fundamental paradigm shift in the principle of freedom of contract from "party autonomy" to "one-sided autonomy". On this basis, the need for state intervention to provide legal protection in the form of mandatory regulations as an exception to the contractual principle that is absolute becomes relative, namely that the applicable law is not mutatis mutandis law that is chosen by the parties but the law where habitual residence is.

Keywords


Consumer Protection; Choice of Law; Habitual Residence; Characteristic Consumer Contract.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdul Gani Abdullah, ‘Pandangan Yuridis Conflict of Law Dan Choice of Forum Dalam Kontrak Bisnis Internasional’ (2005) 2 Bulletin Hukum Perbankan dan Kebanksentralan.

Agus Yudha Hernoko, Hukum Perjanjian, Asas Proporsionalitas Dalam Kontrak Komersial (LaksBang Mediatama Yogyakarta 2008).

Ahmadi Miru and Sutarman Yodo, Hukum Perlindungan Konsumen (1st edn, Raja Grafindo Persada 2014).

Amrul Partomuan Pohan, Penggunaan Kontrak Baku (Standard Contract) Dalam Praktek Bisnis Di Indonesia, Dimuat Dalam Majalah Hukum Nasional (BPHN, Departemen Kehakiman 1994).

Az Nasution, Hukum Perlindungan Konsumen, Suatu Pengantar (Diadit Media 2011).

Edmon Makarim, Pengantar Hukum Telematika Suatu Kompilasi Kajian (Raja Grafindo Persada 2005).

Friedrich Kessler, ‘Contracts of Adhesion-Some Thoughts About Freedom of Contract’ [1943] Columbia Law Review ,Yale Law School Faculty.

Gunawan Widjaja, Transaksi Bisnis Internasional-Ekspor Impor Dan Imbal Beli (RajaGrafindo Persada 2000).

Herlien Budiono, Asas Keseimbangan Bagi Hukum Perjanjian Indonesia, Hukum Perjanjian Berlandaskan Asas Asas Wigati Indonesia (Citra Aditya Bakti 2015).

M. Sumampouw, ‘Pilihan Hukum Sebagai Titik Pertalian Dalam Hukum Perdjanjian Internasional’ (Universitas Indonesia 1968).

Manfred B Steger, Globalism, The New Market Ideology,(Globalisasi, Bangkitnya Ideologi Pasar) (Penerjemah: Heru Prasetia ed, Pustaka Lafadi 2006).

Marcin Szwed, ‘Contitutional Protection of Freedom of Contract in the European Union, Polan and the United States and Its Potential Impact on European Contract Law’ (Central European University 2014).

Maryke S. Nuth, Party Autonomy, Choice of Law and Wrap Contracts (Faculty of Law University of Oslo 2012).

Mo Zhang, ‘Contractual Choice Of Law In Contracts Of Adhesion And Party Autonomy’ [2015] Akron Law Review.

Moch. Isnaeni, Perkembangan Hukum Perdata Di Indonesia (Laksbang Grafika 2013).

——, Pejar Pendar Hukum Perdata (Revka Petra Media 2016).

Muhammad Syaifudin, Hukum Kontrak, Memahami Kontrak Dalam Perspektif Filsafat, Teori, Dogmatik Dan Praktik Hukum (Manda Maju 2012).

Norberth Reich, Protection of Consumers Economis Interest by the EC (Sydney Law Review 1992).

R.H.J Engels, Syarat Syarat Eksonari Atau Syarat Syarat Untuk Pengecualian Tanggung Jawab, (Copendium Hukum Belanda) (Leiden 1978).

Ridwan Khairandy, Itikad Baik Dalam Kebebasan Berkontrak (Program Pascasarjana, Fakultas Hukum Universitas Indonesia 2003).

Sophar Maru Hutagalung, Kontrak Bisnis Di Asean, Pengaruh Sistem Hukum Common Law Dan Civil Law (Sinar Grafika 2013).

Sudargo Gautama, Hukum Perdata Internasional (Jilid II, Alumni 2004).

Suharnoko, Hukum Perikatan (Law Of Obligation), Hukum Kontrak Dalam Perspektif Komparatif (Pustaka Larasan 2012).

Sutan Remi Sjahdeini, Kebebasan Berkontrak Dan Perlindungan Yang Seimbang Bagi Para Pihak Dalam Perjanjian Kredit Bank Di Indonesia (Pustaka Utama Graffiti 2009).

Taufiqurrahman, Karakter Pilihan Hukum, Kajian Tentang Lingkup Penerapan The United Nations Convention on Contract for International Sale of Goods (CSIG) 1980 (Banyumedia 2010).

Timothy P. Lester, ‘Globalized Automatic Choice of Forum: Where Do Internet Consumers Sue? Proposed Article 7 of the Hague Convention on International Jurisdiction and Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters and Its Possible Effects on E Commerce 432].’ (2003) 9 University of Houston Law Center, New Eng. J. Int’l & Comp. L.

Yansen Dermanto Latip, ‘Pilihan Hukum Dan Pilihan Forum Dalam Kontrak Internasional’ (Hukum Universitas Indonesia 2002).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Yuridika

Yuridika (ISSN: 0215-840X | e-ISSN: 2528-3103) by http://e-journal.unair.ac.id/index.php/YDK/index under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Statcounter :

View My Stats

Yuridika has been indexed by:

  

Full Indexed Service