Relationship between High Sensitivity-C Reactive Protein Level and Impaired Cognitive Function in HIV Patients

Rachmi Kurniawati, PAULUS SUGIANTO

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/fmi.v57i1.16733
Abstract views = 212 times | downloads = 129 times

Abstract


Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection was one of the most serious health challenges in the world. The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia reports the number of HIV cases in Indonesia as of June 2019 as many as 349,882. At present, although antiretroviral combination therapy has been found, the prevalence of neurocognitive disorders in the form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) reaches 50% of HIV patients. This study aimed to determine the relationship between high sensitivity-C Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) level and cognitive impairment assessed using MoCA-INA score in HIV patients at the UPIPI Dr. Soetomo Academic Hospital Surabaya. This cross-sectional study used consecutive sampling that fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. The cognitive function of the subjects was examined by MoCA-INA score and blood samples were collected for measuring hs-CRP level. Of 100 subjects, 41 had abnormal MoCA-INA score and 59 had normal score. The number of subjects with high level of hs-CRP (>= 5) who had abnormal and normal MoCA-INA score were 22 (53,7%) and 6 (10,2%) respectively. This result was significantly difference with p = 0,0001, RO = 28,072 (95% CI, 5,470-144,052). Therefore, there was a significant relationship between hs-CRP level and cognitive function, where a subject with a high hs-CRP level was more likely to have impaired cognitive function.

Keywords


HAND, HIV, hs-CRP, MoCA-INA

Full Text:

PDF

References


Banks, S. H. W. A. (2016) ‘Role of the Immune System in HIV-associated Neuroinflammation and Neurocognitive Implications Suzi’, NIH Public Access Author, pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2014.10.008.Role.

Burdo, T. H. et al. (2013) ‘Elevated sCD163 in plasma but not cerebrospinal fluid is a marker of neurocognitive impairment in HIV infection’, Aids, 27(9), pp. 1387–1395. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32836010bd.

Catroppa, C. and Anderson, V. (2010) ‘Developmental Neuropsychology Children ’ s Attentional Skills 2 Years Post-Traumatic Brain Injury’, (August 2014), pp. 37–41. doi: 10.1207/S15326942DN2303.

Cells, D. C. D. T. et al. (2015) ‘Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV-1 Is Required to Trigger Pyroptotic Death of Lymphoid-Tissue- Report Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV-1 Is Required to Trigger Pyroptotic Death of Lymphoid-Tissue-Derived CD4 T Cells’, pp. 1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.08.011.

Chan, L. G., Kandiah, N. and Chua, A. (2012) ‘HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a South Asian population - Contextual application of the 2007 criteria’, BMJ Open, 2(1). doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000662.

Ditjen P2P Kementerian Kesehatan RI (2019) ‘Laporan Perkembangan HIV/AIDS dan Penyakit Menular Seksual Triwulan II Tahun 2019.’, pp. 1–163. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1040325.

Glowicz (2017) ‘HHS Public Access’, Physiology & behavior, 176(5), pp. 139–148. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.03.040.

Heaton, R. K. et al. (2010) ‘HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: Charter Study’, Neurology, 75(23), pp. 2087–2096. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318200d727.

Husein, N., Lumempouw, S. and Ramli, Y. (2010) ‘MoCA-INA untuk skrining gangguan fungsi kognitif’, 2010 Neurona, 27(4).

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (2019) UNAIDS DATA. Switzerland.

Ku, N. S. et al. (2014) ‘HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in HIV-infected Koreans : the Korean NeuroAIDS Project’, pp. 470–477. doi: 10.1111/hiv.12137.

Lawler, K. et al. (2010) ‘Neurocognitive impairment among HIV-positive individuals in Botswana: A pilot study’, Journal of the International AIDS Society, 13(1), pp. 1–9. doi: 10.1186/1758-2652-13-15.

María, J. et al. (2013) ‘Cognitive Performance in Men and Women Infected with HIV-1’, 2013.

Mccombe, J. et al. (2013) ‘Predictors of symptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in universal health care’, HIV Medicine, 14(2), pp. 99–107. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01043.x.

McCutchan, J. A. et al. (2012) ‘Role of obesity, metabolic variables, and diabetes in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder’, Neurology, 78(7), pp. 485–492. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182478d64.

Mogambery, J. C. et al. (2017) ‘HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in a KwaZulu-Natal HIV clinic: A prospective study’, Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, 18(1), pp. 1–5. doi: 10.4102/sajhivmed.v18i1.732.

Nasronudin (2014) ‘HIV & AIDS :Pendekatan Biologi Molekuler, Klinis dan Sosial.’, Surabaya: Airlangga University Press, 2014, Edisi ke 2.

Okafor, C. N. et al. (2017) ‘Body mass index, inflammatory biomarkers and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected persons’, Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22(3), pp. 289–302. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2016.1199887.

Rubin, L. H. et al. (2018) ‘Variability in C-reactive protein is associated with cognitive impairment in women living with and without HIV: a longitudinal study’, Journal of NeuroVirology. Journal of NeuroVirology, 24(1), pp. 41–51. doi: 10.1007/s13365-017-0590-4.

Schouten, J., Su, T., Wit, Ferdinand W., et al. (2016) ‘Determinants of reduced cognitive performance in HIV-1-infected middle-aged men on combination antiretroviral therapy’, Aids, 30(7), pp. 1027–1038. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001017.

Schouten, J., Su, T., Wit, Ferdinand W, et al. (2016) ‘Determinants of reduced cognitive performance in HIV-1-infected middle-aged men on combination antiretroviral therapy’, (November 2015). doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001017.

Tedaldi, E. M., Minniti, N. L. and Fischer, T. (2015) ‘Review Article HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders : The Relationship of HIV Infection with Physical and Social Comorbidities’. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015. doi: 10.1155/2015/641913.

Waggoner, J. J. et al. (2016) ‘Monocyte Activation Is Associated With Worse Cognitive Performance in HIV-Infected Women With Virologic Suppression.’, pp. 1–26.

Watanabe, Y. et al. (2016) ‘Elevated C-Reactive Protein is Associated with Cognitive Decline in Outpatients of a General Hospital: The Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST)’, Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 6(1), pp. 10–19. doi: 10.1159/000442585.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Rachmi Kurniawati, PAULUS SUGIANTO

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed By

View My Stats

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.