Globalization and Gender Studies: Gender Equality Points of SDG’s in Effect to Timor Leste’s Society Study Case

Fitra Shaumi Azzahra, Athaya Aushafina

Abstract views = 340 times | downloads = 543 times


After gaining independence in 2002, Timor Leste set a goal for its national development as its first order of business. Timor Leste ratified Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in order to receive aid and assistance from member states of the United Nations more developed than they were. In 2013, various media outlets and non-governmental organizations highlighted significant growth that Timor Leste showed in matters of gender equality. The country became the only Pacific Asian state to have up to 38 percent of their parliament seats be occupied by women. The high level of women’s representation in Timor Leste’s government is seen as a way to achieve SDGs and to embody gender equality. However, in reality women still face problems of discrimination on the societal level, as seen from the still all too common occurrences of sexual harassment, as well as accessibility to jobs and education for women which are still far from the standards expected by SDGs. This article argues that the SDG as a form of globalization had not succeeded in homogenizing the culture that applies in Timor Leste. Thus, the top-down structure do not bring any implications towards the needs of women in the country. This article aims to assess the gender-gap phenomenon using three main globalization approaches mainly: homogenized globalization, polarized globalization and the hybrid type of globalization. In the end, this article will also argue that it is more relevant to see current world’s culture as a product of hybrid globalization rather than homogenized or polarized globalization especially when it comes to seeing the phenomenon in Third World countries such as Timor Leste.

Full Text:



Journal and online journal

Cummins, D., 2011. “The problem of gender quotas: women’s representatives on

Timor-Leste’s suku councils.” Development in Practice, 21 (1): 85-95.

Gabriel, S.P., 2016. ““Local” and “national” transformations: Cultural globalization,

heterogeneity, and Malaysian literature in English.” The Journal of

Commonwealth Literature, 51 (1): 145-164.

Ghosh, B., 2011. “Cultural changes and challenges in the era of globalization: The case

of India”. Journal of Developing Societies, 27 (2): 153-175.

Holton, R., 2000. “Globalization’s cultural consequences”. The Annals of the American

Academy of Political and Social Science, 570 (1): 140-152.

Krasner, S.D., 1982. “Structural causes and regime consequences: regimes as intervening variables”. International organization, 36 (2): 185-205.

Lieber, R.J. and Weisberg, R.E., 2002. “Globalization, culture, and identities in

crisis”. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 16 (2): 273-296.

Niner, S., 2011. “Hakat klot, Narrow steps: negotiating gender in post-conflict TimorLeste”. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 13 (3): 413-435.

Young, O.R., 1982. “Regime dynamics: the rise and fall of international

regimes”. International organization, 36 (2): 277-297.


Araujo, Rui Mario. 2016. in Quintao, Paulina. SDGs To Be Implemented Across

Four Sectors: PM [Online] available at

news/13972-sdgs-to-be-implemented-across-four-sectors-pm [accessed on 18th

August 2018]

Coonrod, John. 2014. MDGs to SDGs: Top 10 Differences. Global Advocacy [Online]

Available at [accessed on

th August 2018]

Hutt, David. 2016. The Trouble with Timor Leste’s Gender Quotas: The Devil Lies in The

Details [Online] Available at quotas/ [accessed on 1st September 2018]

UN Women. n.d Countries preview: Timor Leste. Asia and the Pacifc [online] available at [accessed on 18th August

Other sources

Basanez, Miguel E, et al. 2010. Timor-Leste Values Study: Final Report. Cultural Change

Institute of The Fletcher School. Tufts University [Online] Available at http://fletcher.

pdf [accessed on 15th August 2018]

ECLAC UNSD. 2017. Secretary General’s SDG Report: The Global Reporting System.

DA 10 Opening Workshop Presentation [Online] Available at https://www.cepal.


[accessed on 4th August 2018]

Gabrielson, C., 2002. East Timorese Women’s Fight against Violence. Institute of

Current and World Affairs.

ICLEI. 2015. From MDGs to SDGs: What are The Sustainable Development Goals?.

ICLEI Briefng Sheet [Online]


[accessed on 19th August 2018]

Niner, Sara et al., 2015. Gender Analysis of Oxfam Savings and Loans Groups in Timor Leste:

Research Reports. Monash University [Online] Available at

edu/__data/assets/pdf_fle/0004/1094089/Gender-analysis-of-oxfam-savings-andloans-groups-in-timor-leste.pdf [accessed on 2 September 2018]

Obama, Barack Hussein. 2015. Remarks by The President on Sustainable Development

Goals. National Archives: Ofce of the Press Secretary. [Online] Available

at [accessed in 6th September 2018]

World Food Programme. 2018. Timor Leste Country Strategic Plan (2018-2012). Executive

Board Documents. [Online] Available at

d34942bd-358a-41a0-978c-c315f3861efe/download/ [accessed in 25th August 2018]


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Global & Strategis

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Global Strategis

Ruang Cakra Buana Catur Matra
C102 Gedung C FISIP Universitas Airlangga
Jl. Dharmawangsa Dalam Selatan, Surabaya 60286



Creative Commons License
Global Strategis journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Indexed by: