The Relocation of the United States’ Embassy in Israel: Analysis of the Influence of Trump’s Nationalist Worldview and United States’ Domestic Politics

Yanuar Albertus, I Gede Wahyu Wicaksana

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jgs.14.1.2020.125-142
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Abstract


Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk menganalisis kebijakan luar negeri Trump terkait pemindahan Kedutaan Besar Amerika Serikat (AS) di Israel dari Tel Aviv ke Yerusalem pada 6 Desember 2017. Kebijakan itu memicu berbagai kritik karena dunia menganggap pemindahan Kedutaan Besar AS ke Yerusalem sebagai pelanggaran berbagai resolusi yang diadopsi oleh PBB. Terlepas dari kritik dunia, Trump masih bersikeras untuk memindahkan Kedutaan Besar AS ke Yerusalem. Kebijakan ini berhasil dilaksanakan seiring dengan diresmikannya kantor Kedutaan Besar AS yang baru di Yerusalem pada 14 Mei 2018. Berangkat dari fenomena ini, penelitian ini membahas mengapa Trump tetap memindahkan Kedutaan Besar AS di Israel ke Yerusalem meskipun mendapat tentangan internasional. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan tersebut, penelitian ini menggunakan dua kerangka pemikiran, yaitu analisis worldview dan analisis politik domestik dalam pembuatan kebijakan luar negeri. Dari dua kerangka pemikiran ini, penulis berargumen bahwa pemindahan Kedutaan Besar AS di Israel ke Yerusalem dipengaruhi oleh worldview Trump dan didukung oleh politik domestik AS yang melegitimasi kebijakan tersebut. Temuan dalam penelitian ini lantas mengonfirmasi argumen tersebut dengan data yang menunjukkan bahwa nationalist worldview yang dimiliki Trump menjadi faktor pendorong untuk pemindahan Kedutaan Besar AS ke Yerusalem. Lebih lanjut, penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa nationalist worldview bukanlah faktor tunggal dalam kebijakan Trump tersebut. Dalam kasus ini, kondisi politik domestik AS memberikan legitimasi bagi Trump untuk memindahkan kedutaan ke Yerusalem, yang di dalamnya mencakup opini publik yang pro-Israel, keberadaan Israel Lobby, serta adanya kepentingan Trump untuk memenuhi janji politiknya mengenai Yerusalem.

 

Kata-kata Kunci: Yerusalem, Trump, Nationalist Worldview, Opini Publik, Israel Lobby, Janji Politik

 

 

This research analyzes Trump's foreign policy on the relocation of the United States (U.S.) Embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, which was carried out on 6 December 2017. The policy triggered various criticisms as the world considered the movement as a violation of various resolutions adopted by the United Nations. Despite world criticism, Trump still insisted on moving the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem. The policy was successfully implemented as the new embassy was established on 14 May 2018. Departing from this phenomenon, the author discusses why Trump continued to move the U.S. Embassy in Israel to Jerusalem despite international opposition. To answer the question, the author uses two frameworks: the analysis of worldview and the analysis of domestic politics in foreign policymaking. From these two frameworks, the author then argues that the relocation of the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem was influenced by Trump's worldview, and was supported by U.S. domestic politics, which legitimized the policy. The findings in this research strongly confirm the author's argument aforementioned as the data collected shows that Trump's nationalist worldview is a driving factor for the move of the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem. Furthermore, this study also shows that nationalist worldview is not a single factor in Trump's policy. In this case, the U.S. domestic politics also play a role by giving the legitimacy to move the embassy to Jerusalem, which included a pro-Israeli public opinion, the existence of an Israel Lobby, and Trump's interest in fulfilling his political promises regarding Jerusalem.

 

Keywords: Jerusalem, Trump, Nationalist Worldview, Public Opinion, Israel Lobby, Political Promises


Keywords


Yerusalem Trump, Nationalist Worldview, Opini Publik, Israel Lobby, Janji Politik

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References


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