The Modernization of Poland Defense Forces to Respond Russia Military Presence in Kaliningrad Oblast (2014-2017)

Anak Agung Banyu Perwita, Widya Dwi Rachmawati

Abstract views = 705 times | downloads = 644 times


The geopolitical security condition of Eastern Europe has undergone a drastic shift from Communist to Democratic ideology. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Poland immediately joined the Western alliance, which led to the massive structural changes of the country. The shift has had an enormous impact on Russia where it has made various confrontations to regain its influence in the region. Russia continues to increase tensions by increasing the military capabilities of Kaliningrad Oblast, which is directly bordered by Poland. In response, the Polish government made efforts to modernize its military as part of the Defense White Book 2013 to improve its military capabilities in response to Russian military presence in Kaliningrad Oblast. The role of the global players (EU, NATO, and the USA) is key important to the security stability of the region. Poland on its four pillars specifically calls the alliance with the USA and becomes a member of NATO as an important factor in the formulation of its defense policy, in which Poland could increase the capabilities of its Armed Forces.


Poland defense policy, military modernization, Kaliningrad Oblast, global players, Russia

Full Text:



Books and Journals

Aydin, M. (2005). Europe’s new region: The Black Sea in the wider Europe neighbourhood. Southeast European And Black Sea Studies, 5(2), 257-283.

Braumoeller, B. (2016). Systemic Theories of International Politics. Oxford: Bibliographies Online Datasets.

Cleary, L., & McConville, T. (2006). Managing defence in a democracy. London: Routledge.

Das Kundu, N. (2003). Kaliningrad: Russian enclave in the European union. Strategic Analysis, 27(4), p. 626-642.

Hatt, C. (2002). The End of the Cold War. London: Hodder Wayland.

Jankowski, D. (2014). Towards a Stronger European Security : Modernization of the Polish Armed Forces. Security And Strategy, (1).

Jones, S. (2007). The rise of European security cooperation (pp. 18-20). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kissinger, H. (2014). World order. New York: Penguin Books.

Lamoreaux, J., & Galbreath, D. (2008). The Baltic States As ‘Small States’: Negotiating The ‘East’ By Engaging The ‘West’. Journal Of Baltic Studies, 39(1), p.1-14.

Mankoff, Jeffrey. 2009. Russian foreign policy: the return of great power politics. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.

Mihalka, M. (2005). NATO Response Force: Rapid? Responsive? A Force?. Connections: The Quarterly Journal, 04(2), p.67-79.

P. Klosinska-Dabrowska. (2015). Essays on Global Safety Governance: Challenges and Solutions, Warsaw: ASPRA-JR, 2015, p. 21-39.

Protasowicki, T. (2016). An Integrated Transformation of the National Security System of The Republic Of Poland. Ekonomiczne Problemy Usług, 123, p. 287-299.

Prizel, I. (1994). The United States and a Resurgent Russia: A New Cold War or a Recast Balance of Power?. American Foreign Policy Interests, 16(2), p.1-13.

Schmidt-Felzmann, A. (2014). Is the EU’s failed relationship with Russia the member states’ fault?. L'europe En Formation, 374(4), p.10.

Snyder, J. (2008). One World, Rival Theories. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Tassinari, F. (2011). Region-building as trust-building: the EU’s faltering involvement in the Black Sea region. Southeast European And Black Sea Studies, 11(3), 227-239.

TATSUMI, A. (2013). The European Union as a Global Actor: through the Development of the CFSP/CSDP. EU Studies In Japan, 2013(33), 1-32.

Veljanovska, K. (2015). Use of Military Forces of the Republic of Poland. Warszawa: National Defense Academy

Westerlund, F. (2017). Russia’s Military Strategy and Force Structure in Kaliningrad. FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, 1-2.

Zapfe, M. (2017). Deterrence from the Ground Up: Understanding NATO's Enhanced Forward Presence (3rd ed.), p. 147-160.

Zonik, Kuczyńska. (2016). “Russian propaganda: methods of influence in the Baltic States”, 14 (2). Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, p. 43–60.

Official Publications, Reports, and Online Sources

Belkin, P. (2016). “NATO’s Warsaw Summit in Brief”. CRS Report. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service (CRS).

Defense Strategy of the Republic of Poland. (2009). Warsaw: The Ministry of National Defense Republic of Poland.

European Council. (2017). European Council Conclusions on Security and Defence. Retrieved 8 January 2018, from

European Defence Agency. (2006). “An initial long-term vision for European defence capability and capacity needs”. Retrieved 11 November 2017, from

European External Action Service. (2017). EU-NATO Cooperation. Retreived 8 January 2018, from

Kowalik, T., Jankowski, D. (2017). The dangerous tool of Russian military exercises. CEPA. Retrieved 22 November 2017, from

Koziej, S. (2012). THE NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGIC REVIEW (NSSR) 2010-2012 MAIN CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Presentation, National Security Bureau of the Republic of Poland.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic of Poland. (2016). Information of the Minister of Foreign Affairs on the Polish Government’s foreign policy in 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2017, from

Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. (2017). Zapad 2017 Joined Strategic Exercise. Retrieved 22 November 2017, from egNews

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (2016). Joint declaration by the European Council, the European Commission, and the NATO. Retrieved 8 January 2018, from

Russia poses biggest threat to global security: Polish defence minister. (2016). Polskie Radio dla Zagranicy. Retrieved 15 November 2017, from,Russia-poses-biggest-threat-to-global-security-Polish-defence-minister

RCZPI|2017, m. (2018). International Cooperation. Retrieved 8 January 2018, from

Szatkowski, T. (2017). How to Enhance the Security of Poland and NATO, Post-Warsaw Summit. Retrieved 8 October 2017, from

U.S. Embassy and Consulate in Poland. (2018). American Armored Brigade Combat Team Coming to Poland. Retrieved 10 Januay 2018, from

Yarger, H. (2006). Strategic theory for the 21st century: the little book on big strategy. Carlisle, PA: SSI.

White Book on National Security of the Republic of Poland. (2013). Warsaw: The Ministry of National Defense Republic of Poland.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Global & Strategis

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Global Strategis

Ruang Cakra Buana Catur Matra
C102 Gedung C FISIP Universitas Airlangga
Jl. Dharmawangsa Dalam Selatan, Surabaya 60286



Creative Commons License
Global Strategis journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Indexed by: