Growth Factor Comparison in Cortical Demineralized Bone Matrix that Demineralized Using Chloric and Acetic Acid

Demineralized bone matrix IGF-1 BMP-2 TGF-β Human and medicine


April 30, 2023


Background: Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM) is an alternative biomaterial that needs particular acid and a specific time to optimize the growth factors preservation. The best demineralization protocol for preserving growth factors in DBM is currently unavailable. This study aimed to investigate DBM extraction methods using different acids and times to maintain the optimum growth factors.
Methods: This in vitro experimental laboratory study used a randomized controlled post-test-only group design. We characterized the IGF-1, BMP2, and TGF-β content of 1 gram of New Zealand White Rabbit cortical bone immersed in 0.6 M hydrochloric and 0.5 M acetic acid at 3, 6, and 9 days. We then analyzed the differences in growth factor levels in each acid and analyzed them statistically.
Results: IGF-1 levels were higher in DBM demineralized acetic acid than hydrochloric acid. BMP-2 and TGF-β levels were higher in DBM demineralized using hydrochloric acid. The concentration of growth factors decreased with time in DBM demineralized using acetic acid. The highest growth factor level was obtained after six days of immersion in hydrochloric acid.
Conclusion: The average value of IGF-1 in DBM demineralized with acetic acid was higher than in hydrochloric acid. Otherwise, BMP 2 and TGF-β were better in hydrochloric acid. We also found that the growth factor level in hydrochloric acid reached its peak level at six days and then decreased. These results suggest the importance of not over-demineralizing the bone to maintain growth factors, and further research should be conducted to improve DBM processing.

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