The pore size of chitosan-Aloe vera scaffold and its effect on VEGF expressions and woven alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction of Cavia cobaya

S. Sularsih

Abstract views = 436 times | downloads = 266 times


Background: Pore size of scaffolds affects cellular activity, stimulates angiogenetic factors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), synthesises new blood vessels to regulate migration and proliferation, and accelerates alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction. Purpose: This study aims to analyse the pore size of chitosan-Aloe vera scaffold and its effects on VEGF expression and woven alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction of Cavia cobaya. Methods: 36 male Cavia cobaya, aged 3-3.5 months were divided into six groups: negative control groups (without scaffold), positive control groups (chitosan scaffold), and treatment groups (chitosan-Aloe vera scaffold) on 7- and 14-day observations. Histopathological examination was performed to account the woven alveolar bone areas, and immunohistochemical examination was conducted to examine VEGF expressions on endothelial cells. Data was analysed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference (LSD) test (p<0.05). Scaffold pore size examination was performed with scanning electron microscope (SEM) with 250x and 500x magnification. Results: Chitosan-Aloe vera scaffold was found to have open pore interconnectivity, the largest pore size was 138.9 μm, while the smallest was 110.5 μm and average pore size was 134.85 μm. The highest expression of VEGF was observed in the treatment group on days 7 (11.5 ±1.39)  and 14 (15.28±1.78), while the largest woven alveolar bone was observed in the treatment group on days 7(17.83±1.47) and 14 (37.67±3.65). Statistically, there was a significant difference between control groups and the treatment groups (p=0.000; p<0.05). Conclusion: Chitosan-Aloe vera scaffold has pore characteristics increasing VEGF expressions and woven alveolar bone areas.


Aloe vera; chitosan; scaffold pore size; VEGF; woven alveolar bone

Full Text:



Jamjoom A, Cohen R. Grafts for ridge preservation. J Funct Biomater. 2015; 6(3): 833–48.

Kresnoadi U. The increasing of fibroblast growth factor 2, osteocalcin, and osteoblast due to the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and 2% xenograft concelous bovine. Dent J (Majalah Kedokt Gigi). 2012; 45(4): 228–33.

Sheikh Z, Sima C, Glogauer M. Bone replacement materials and techniques used for achieving vertical alveolar bone augmentation. Materials (Basel). 2015; 8(6): 2953–93.

Beck TM, Mealey BL. Histologic analysis of healing after tooth extraction with ridge preservation using mineralized human bone allograft. J Periodontol. 2010; 81(12): 1765–72.

Javed F, Ahmed H, Crespi R, Romanos G. Role of primary stability for successful osseointegration of dental implants: Factors of influence and evaluation. Interv Med Appl Sci. 2013; 5(4): 162–7.

Holzwarth JM, Ma PX. Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2011; 32(36): 9622–9.

Ariani MD, Matsuura A, Hirata I, Kubo T, Kato K, Akagawa Y. New development of carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffold based on lyophilization technique for bone tissue engineering. Dent Mater J. 2013; 32(2): 317–25.

Sularsih. Type 1 collagen on the wound healing process of dental extraction with different molecular weight of chitosan. In: International Seminar 2nd Dentisphere, Current Concept in Dentistry. Surabaya: Hang Tuah University; 2013. p. 46–52.

Sularsih S, Wahjuningsih E. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 after using chitosan gel with different molecular weight on wound healing process of dental extraction. Dent J (Majalah Kedokt Gigi). 2015; 48(2): 53–8.

Silva SS, Popa EG, Gomes ME, Cerqueira M, Marques AP, Caridade SG, Teixeira P, Sousa C, Mano JF, Reis RL. An investigation of the potential application of chitosan/aloe-based membranes for regenerative medicine. Acta Biomater. 2013; 9(6): 6790–7.

Sudarshan R, Annigeri RG, Sree Vijayabala G. Aloe vera in the treatment for oral submucous fibrosis - a preliminary study. J Oral Pathol Med. 2012; 41(10): 755–61.

Salinas C, Handford M, Pauly M, Dupree P, Cardemil L. Structural modifications of fructans in aloe barbadensis miller (Aloe vera) grown under water stress. PLoS One. 2016; 11(7): 1–24.

Boonyagul S, Banlunara W, Sangvanich P, Thunyakitpisal P. Effect of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on BMSCs proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization, and bone formation in a tooth extraction model. Odontology. 2014; 102(2): 310–7.

Rahman S, Carter P, Bhattarai N. Aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. J Funct Biomater. 2017; 8: 1–17.

Yin S, Ellis DE. First-principles investigations of Ti-substituted hydroxyapatite electronic structure. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2010; 12(1): 156–63.

Saran U, Gemini Piperni S, Chatterjee S. Role of angiogenesis in bone repair. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014; 561: 109–17.

Sularsih, Soetjipto, Rahayu RP. The fabrication and characterization of chitosan-ethanol extracted aloe vera scaffold for alveolar bone healing application. J Int Dent Med Res. 2019; 12(4): 1376–81.

Martínez A, Blanco MD, Davidenko N, Cameron RE. Tailoring chitosan/collagen scaffolds for tissue engineering: Effect of composition and different crosslinking agents on scaffold properties. Carbohydr Polym. 2015; 132: 606–19.

Yuliati A, Kartikasari N, Munadziroh E, Rianti D. The profile of crosslinked bovine hydroxyapatite gelatin chitosan scaffolds with 0.25% glutaraldehyde. J Int Dent Med Res. 2017; 10(1): 151–5.

Chiara G, Letizia F, Lorenzo F, Edoardo S, Diego S, Stefano S, Eriberto B, Barbara Z. Nanostructured biomaterials for tissue engineered bone tissue reconstruction. Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(1): 737–57.

Holzapfel BM, Reichert JC, Schantz JT, Gbureck U, Rackwitz L, Nöth U, Jakob F, Rudert M, Groll J, Hutmacher DW. How smart do biomaterials need to be? A translational science and clinical point of view. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2013; 65(4): 581–603.

Larjava H. Oral wound healing: Cell biology and clinical management. Singapore: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012. p. 195–9.

Khullar S, A M, Datta P. Healing of tooth extraction socket. Heal Talk. 2012; 4(5): 37–9.

Vo TN, Kasper FK, Mikos AG. Strategies for controlled delivery of growth factors and cells for bone regeneration. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2012; 64(12): 1292–309.

Vieira AE, Repeke CE, De Barros Ferreira S, Colavite PM, Biguetti CC, Oliveira RC, Assis GF, Taga R, Trombone APF, Garlet GP. Intramembranous bone healing process subsequent to tooth extraction in mice: Micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric and molecular characterization. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5): 1–22.

Kung S, Devlin H, Fu E, Ho KY, Liang SY, Hsieh YD. The osteoinductive effect of chitosan-collagen composites around pure titanium implant surfaces in rats. J Periodontal Res. 2011; 46(1): 126–33.

Majewska I, Gendaszewska-Darmach E. Proangiogenic activity of plant extracts in accelerating wound healing - a new face of old phytomedicines. Acta Biochim Pol. 2011; 58(4): 449–60.

Sargowo D, Handaya AY, Widodo MA, Lyrawati D, Tjokroprawiro A. Aloe gel enhances angiogenesis in healing of diabetic wound. Indones Biomed J. 2011; 3(3): 204–15.

Chantarawaratit P, Sangvanich P, Banlunara W, Soontornvipart K, Thunyakitpisal P. Acemannan sponges stimulate alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament regeneration in a canine class II furcation defect model. J Periodontal Res. 2014; 49(2): 164–78.

Van der Ende J, Van Baardewijk LJ, Sier CFM, Schipper IB. Bone healing and mannose-binding lectin. Int J Surg. 2013; 11(4): 296–300.

Yagi A. Putative prophylaxes of Aloe vera latex and inner gel as immunomodulator. J Gastroenterol Hepatol Res. 2015; 4(5): 1585–98.

Akev N, Can A, Sütlüpmar N, Çandöken E, Özsoy N, Özden TY, Yanardaǧ R, Üzen E. Twenty years of research on Aloe vera. J Pharm Istanbul Univ. 2015; 45(2): 191–215.

Wang XF, Zhang YK, Yu ZS, Zhou JL. The role of the serum RANKL/OPG ratio in the healing of intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients. Mol Med Rep. 2013; 7(4): 1169–72.

Zhou Y, Wu Y, Jiang X, Zhang X, Xia L, Lin K, Xu Y. The effect of quercetin on the osteogenesic differentiation and angiogenic factor expression of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6): 1–21.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

View My Stats