The role of active ingredients nanopowder Stichopus hermanii gel to bone resorption in tension area of orthodontic tooth movement

Noengki Prameswari, Arya Brahmanta

Abstract views = 771 times | downloads = 560 times


Background: Orthodontic tooth movement is a continual and balanced process between bone deposition and bone resorption in pressure and tension sites. Stichopus hermanii is one of the best fishery commodities in Indonesia. It is natural and contains various active ingredients such as hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulphate, cell growth factor, eicosa pentaenoic acid (EPA) docosa hexaenoic acid (DHA) and flavonoid that potentially play a role in orthodontic tooth movement. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the active ingredients of nanopowder Stichopus hermanii promoting bone resorption in tension area orthodontic tooth movement. Methods: A quantitative test for active ingredients of stichopus hermanii was conducted. Thirty two male Cavia cobaya were divisibled became four groups. K (–) groups as a negative control group (without treatment), K (+) groups as a positive control group which were provided with a separator rubber for orthodontic tooth movement, and P1, P2 groups, which were treated with 3% and 3.5% stichopus hermanii for orthodontic tooth movement. After treatment the cavia cobaya were sacrificed. TRAP-6 expression as a osteoclast marker was examined by means of an immunohistochemistry method. Results: A one-way Anova test confirmed that TRAP-6 expression was significantly increased with p = 0.00 (p≤0,05) in P2 compared to K (+). P2 to K (–), P2 to P1 and P1 to K (+) had no significant differences Conclusion: Nanopowder Stichopus hermanii 3.5% has an active ingredient that could increase osteoclast activity to resorb periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in tension areas of orthodontic tooth movement.


Nanopowder; Stichopus hermanii; resorption; TRAP-6; orthodontic tooth movement

Full Text:



Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Riset kesehatan dasar (RISKESDAS) 2013. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2013. p. 143–5.

de Almeida AB, Leite ICG, Melgaço CA, Marques LS. Dissatisfaction with dentofacial appearance and the normative need for orthodontic treatment: determinant factors. Dental Press J Orthod. 2014; 19(3): 120–6.

Krishnan V, Davidovitch Z. Cellular, molecular, and tissue-level reactions to orthodontic force. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2006; 129(4): 469.e1–32.

Ariffin SHZ, Yamamoto Z, Abidin IZZ, Wahab RMA, Ariffin ZZ. Cellular and molecular changes in orthodontic tooth movement. Sci World J. 2011; 11: 1788–803.

Proffit WR, Fields HW, Sarver DM. Contemporary orthodontics. 4th ed. St Louis-Missouri: Mosby Elsevier; 2007. p. 75–84.

Susilowati S. Peran matriks metaloproteinase-8 pada cairan krevikuler gingiva selama pergerakan gigi ortodontik. Dentofasial. 2010; 9(1): 47–54.

Alhadlaq AM. Biomarkers of orthodontic tooth movement in gingival crevicular fluid: a systematic review. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2015; 16(7): 578–87.

Prameswari N. The response of periodontal ligament collagen fibres and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at cementum pressure sites of fixed orthodontic appliances. Dent J (Maj Ked Gigi). 2007; 40(2): 70–5.

Mohamed AM. An overview of bone cells and their regulating factors of differentiation. Malays J Med Sci. 2008; 15(1): 4–12.

Prameswari N, Soetjipto S, Rahayu RP. Osteogenesis at tension site by Stichopus hermanii application as relapse orthodontic prevention. Int J ChemTech Res. 2016; 9(6): 686–93.

Kitaura H, Kimura K, Ishida M, Sugisawa H, Kohara H, Yoshimatsu M, Takano-Yamamoto T. Effect of cytokines on osteoclast formation and bone resorption during mechanical force loading of the periodontal membrane. Sci World J. 2014; 2014: 1–7.

Bordbar S, Anwar F, Saari N. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review. Mar Drugs. 2011; 9: 1761–805.

Sendih S, Gunawan. Keajaiban teripang: penyembuh mujarab dari laut. Jakarta: Agro Media Pustaka; 2006. p. 13–49.

Revianti S, Soetjipto S, Rahayu RP, Parisihni K. Protective role of Sticophus hermanii ethanol extract supplementation to oxidative stress and oral hyperkeratosis in smoking exposed rats. Int J ChemTech Res. 2016; 9(5): 408–17.

Zohdi RM, Zakaria ZAB, Yusof N, Mustapha NM, Abdullah MNH. Sea cucumber (Stichopus hermanii) based hydrogel to treat burn wounds in rats. J Biomed Mater Res Part B Appl Biomater. 2011; 98(1): 30–7.

Li J, Zeng L, Xie J, Yue Z, Deng H, Ma X, Zheng C, Wu X, Luo J, Liu M. Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo by a prenylflavonoid xanthohumol from hops. Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 1-14.

Xiong J, Onal M, Jilka RL, Weinstein RS, Manolagas SC, O’Brien CA. Matrix-embedded cells control osteoclast formation. Nat Med. 2012; 17(10): 1235–41.

Akiyama M, Nakahama K, Morita I. Impact of docosahexaenoic acid on gene expression during osteoclastogenesis in vitro--a comprehensive analysis. Nutrients. 2013; 5: 3151–62.

Blumer MJF, Hausott B, Schwarzer C, Hayman AR, Stempel J, Fritsch H. Role of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in long bone development. Mech Dev. 2012; 129: 162–76.

Rodriguez-Carballo E, Gámez B, Ventura F. p38 MAPK signaling in osteoblast differentiation. Front cell Dev Biol. 2016; 4: 1–20.

Rahman MM, Bhattacharya A, Fernandes G. Docosahexaenoic acid is more potent inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation in RAW 264.7 cells than eicosapentaenoic acid. J Cell Physiol. 2008; 214: 201–9.

Braun T, Zwerina J. Positive regulators of osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011; 13: 1–11.

Shu S. Immunological effects of complementary and alternative medicine in allergy and astma. Disertation. California: University of California; 2008. p. 1–20.

Chi L, Gao W, Shu X, Lu X. A natural flavonoid glucoside, icariin, regulates Th17 and alleviates rheumatoid arthritis in a murine model. Mediators Inflamm. 2014; 2014: 1-10.

Osta B, Lavocat F, Eljaafari A, Miossec P. Effects of interleukin-17A on osteogenic differentiation of isolated human mesenchymal stem cells. Front Immunol. 2014; 5: 1–8.

Reyes-Zurita FJ, Pachón-Peña G, Lizárraga D, Rufino-Palomares EE, Cascante M, Lupiáñez JA. The natural triterpene maslinic acid induces apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells by a JNK-p53- dependent mechanism. BMC Cancer. 2011; 11: 1–13.

Bell RAV, Megeney LA. Evolution of caspase-mediated cell death and differentiation: twins separated at birth. Cell Death Differ. 2017; 24: 1359–68.

Nimeri G, Kau CH, Kheir NSA, Corona R. Acceleration of tooth movement during orthodontic treatment - a frontier in Orthodontics. Progress in Orthodontics. 2013; 14: 42.

Savage JR, Pulsipher A, Rao NV., Kennedy TP, Prestwich GD, Ryan ME, Lee WY. A modified glycosaminoglycan, GM-0111, inhibits molecular signaling involved in periodontitis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6): 1–20.

Ling L, Murali S, Stein GS, van Wijnen AJ, Cool SM. Glycosaminoglycans modulate RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 2010; 109(6): 1222–31.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

View My Stats