Cytoxicity test of NaOCl and Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostin L.) peel extract used as an irrigation solution in human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (HPdLFc)

Tamara Yuanita, Dina Ristyawati, Karlina Samadi

Abstract views = 148 times | views = 159 times


Background: Root canal irrigation is an important stage in root canal treatment as it is requires to eliminate necrotic and debris tissue as well as root canal wetting. Unfortunately, root canal irrigation can cause the material utilised to pass into the apical foramen leading to periapical complications. Consequently, the irrigation solution should have low toxicity. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a commonly used irrigation solution since it has antibacterial properties. Moreover, NaOCl is also known to have the ability to dissolve necrotic tissue, vital pulp tissue and organic components of dentin and biofilms. Nevertheless, it can still cause damage when coming into contact with periapical tissues. On the other hand, Mangosteen peel extract (Garcinia mangostana L.), also has antibacterial activities. Hence, Mangosteen peel extract is assumed to be employable as an alternative irrigation solution. Purpose: This research aimed to reveal the toxicity levels of NaOCl and Mangosteen peel extract (Garcinia mangostin L.) used as irrigation solution in human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (HPdLFc). Methods: HPdLFc were obtained from periapical tissues taken from one third of the first premolar teeth cultured. These cells were subsequently divided into several groups exposed to NaOCl and Mangosteen peel extract at certain concentrations. A toxicity test was then conducted using MTT assay. The results were analyzed with an Elisa reader. Cell deaths and LC50 were then calculated. Results: NaOCl became toxic at a concentration of 0.254 µl/ml or 0.025%, while Mangosteen peel extract became so at one of 2.099 ug/ml or 0.209%. Conclusion: NaOCl can be toxic at a concentration of 0.254 µl/ml or 0.025% and Mangosteen peel extract at one of 2.099 μg/ml or 0.209%.


Cytotoxicity; NaOCl; Mangosteen peel extract; HPDLFc

Full Text:



Karkehabadi H, Yousefifakhr H, Zadsirjan S. Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants on human periodontal ligament cells. Iran Endod J. 2018; 13(3): 390–4.

Gutmann JL, Lovdahl PE. Problem solving in endodontics. 5th ed. Missouri: Mosby Elsevier; 2011. p. 209-12.

Hargreaves KM, Berman LH, Rotstein I. Cohen’s pathways of the pulp. 11th ed. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2016. p. 251-2.

Harris J. Comparison of STERIPLEX TM HC and sodium hypochlorite cytotoxicity on primary human gingival fibroblasts. Thesis. Virginia: Virginia Commonwealth University; 2012. p. 1-25.

Faras F, Abo-Alhassan F, Sadeq A, Burezq H. Complication of improper management of sodium hypochlorite accident during root canal treatment. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2016; 6(5): 493–6.

Kaomongkolgit R, Jamdee K, Pumklin J, Pavasant P. Laboratory evaluation of the antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of alpha-mangostin when used as a root canal irrigant. Indian J Dent. 2013; 4: 12–7.

Pedraza-Chaverri J, Cárdenas-Rodríguez N, Orozco-Ibarra M, Pérez-Rojas JM. Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). Food Chem Toxicol. 2008; 46(10): 3227–39.

Matsuo M, Sasaki N, Saga K, Kaneko T. Cytotoxicity of flavonoids toward cultured normal human cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005; 28(2): 253–9.

Martínez-Abundis E, García N, Correa F, Hernández-Reséndiz S, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Zazueta C. Effects of α-mangostin on mitochondrial energetic metabolism. Mitochondrion. 2010; 10(2): 151–7.

Zhang M, Aguilera D, Das C, Vasquez H, Zage P, Gopalakrishnan V, Wolff J. Measuring cytotoxicity: a new perspective on LC50. Anticancer Res. 2007; 27: 35–8.

Khoswanto C, Arijani E, Soesilawati P. Cytotoxicity test of 40, 50 and 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner by using MTT assay on culture cell line. Dent J (Maj Ked Gigi). 2008; 41(3): 103–6.

Freshney RI. Culture of animal cells: a manual of basic technique and specialized applications. 6th ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011. p. 1-8, 111-4, 187-206, 365-77.

Scanlon CS, Marchesan JT, Soehren S, Matsuo M, Kapila YL. Capturing the regenerative potential of periodontal ligament fibroblasts. J Stem Cells Regen Med. 2011; 7: 54–6.

Ok E, Adanir N, Hakki S. Comparison of cytotoxicity of various concentrations origanum extract solution with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Eur J Dent. 2015; 9: 6–10.

Saraswati W. Apoptosis sel odontoblas pulpa akibat resin bonding agent HEMA. Thesis. Surabaya: Universitas Airlangga; 2009.

Arabski M, Wȩgierek-Ciuk A, Czerwonka G, Lankoff A, Kaca W. Effects of saponins against clinical E. coli strains and eukaryotic cell line. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012; 2012: 1–6.

Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2015. p. 44-52.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

View My Stats