Kekuatan dan Kekuasaan (dalam) Bahasa: Potret Tradisi Ritual Etnik Rongga, di Manggarai Timur

Ni Wayan Sumitri, I Wayan Arka

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/mozaik.v19i2.12369
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Abstract


Kekuatan dan Kekuasaan (dalam) Bahasa:

Potret Tradisi Ritual EtnikRongga, di ManggaraiTimur

 

Ni Wayan Sumitri

FPBS IKIP PGRI Bali

JalanSeroja, Tonja, Denpasar Utara, Telepon 081916744675

wsmitri66@gmail.com

I Wayan Arka

Australian National University/ FIB Universitas Udayana

JalanNias No 13, Denpasar 80114

wayan.arka@anu.edu.au

 

Abstrak

Penelitian ini mengkaji kekuatan dan kekuasaan dalam bahasa pada etnikRongga dalam konteks kehidupan kontemporer di Manggarai Timur. Fokus kajiannya pada aspek sosio-etnolinguistik terkait dengan bentuk-bentuk linguistik dan non linguistik, sistem nilai budaya yang terkait dengan nilai-nilai kekuasaan, proses pemerolehan, pewarisan, pemertahanannya di masa lampau dan kini, serta prospeknya di masa mendatang. Penelitian deskriptif-kualitatif ini menggunakan pendekatan etnografi, ditopang data  wawancara, studi dokumentasi, rekam dan catat, memaparkan inovasi kajian kapital lingusitik sebagai bagian dari kapital lainnya (sisiokultural dan ekonomis).Hasil temuan menunjukkan bahwa secara linguistik, terdapat kekhasan satuan bentuk ujaran bahasa ritual bersifat puitis arkais dalam pola-pola bersajak dengan tingkat kesulitan bentuk dan irama yang tinggi. Secara etnolinguistik, ada pesan/makna yang sarat nilai sosial budaya dan pengetahuan etnik Rongga terutama terkait dengan kekuasaan. Relasi kekuasaan dan bahasa ritual terbangun secara alamiah melalui  sejumlah kualitas persona dengan mendapatkan pengakuan/ligitimasi atas posisi hirarki sosial seperti kemampuan, keterampilan, dan kepekaan dalam penguasaan pengetahuan adat. Semua itu, sebagai bentuk kapital linguistik dan kultural bagi seseorang, dan juga otoritas rohaniah yang bersifat genealogis menjadi sumber daya potensial pada pengaruh dan kekuasaan menggerakkan kepatuhan dan penghormatan warga lain.Walaupun mengalami penyusutan, danl egitimasinya tergerus karena kehadiran sistem kekuasaan pemerintahan/birokrasi modern Indonesia, namun sistem pewarisan kekuasaan tradisional masih mengikuti garis kekuasaan kepada orang yang memiliki kapital linguistik-budaya, umumnya tokoh adat yang berpengaruh, yang mampu menguasai bahasa ritual dan memanfaatkan pengetahuan adat dan energi lembaga adat untuk berbagai kepentingan, baik ritual/tradisi maupun kontemporer.

 

Kata kunci: kekuatan, kekuasaan,bahasa, tradisi ritual, capital linguistic/budaya

 

Absract

This study examines power within and behind language with reference to the Rongga people in the contemporary East Manggarai context. The focus is on socio-ethnolinguistic aspects as seen in linguistic and non-linguistic forms and cultural value systems reflecting power, the process of acquiring and preserving it in the past and present, and its prospect in the future. This is a qualitative-descriptive study, using an ethnographic approach, supported with data collected by means of interview and documentation. It provides a description and offers a fresh analysis of linguistic capital as part of other kinds of capital (cultural and economic).  The findings show that ritual language linguistically has peculiarities with a high degree of difficulty in terms of poetic and archaic expressions and patterns of rhyme and rhythm.Ethnolinguistically, the ritual language carries messages reflecting socio-cultural values and knowledge, especially in relation to traditional power.  Power within and behind ritual language is acquired and developed naturally through personal qualities (such as ability, skill, and sensitivity in mastering indigenousand linguistic knowledge), with legitimation and recognition of the authority gained by inhereted positions in the traditional social hierarchies. All these form a socio-cultural capital by which one can earn power and respect, driving influence and compliance by fellow members of the community.  While shrinking with eroding legitimacy due to modern Indonesian bureaucratic system, the acquisition of traditional power still relies on heredity, combined with ability in mastering ritual language and indigenous knowledge as part of linguistic-cultural capital for various purposes in both traditional and contemporary contexts.

Keywords: power, language, ritual tradition, linguistic/cultural capital


Keywords


power, language, ritual tradition, linguistic/cultural capital

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References


Individual References

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Sumitri, N. W. 2015. TradisiLisan Vera EtnikRongga, di ManggaraiTimur, Nusa TenggaraTimur. Disertasi Program StudiDoktorLinguistikUniversitasudayana Denpasar.

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Arka, I W. 2010. Maintaning Vera in Rongga: Struggle over Culture, Tradition, and Language in Modern Manggarai, Flores, Indonesiadalam Endangered Languages Of Austronesia. M. Florey (Ed.). OUP.

Arka, I W. 2015. On The Dynamics of Glocalisation and Minority Language Conservation in Contemporary Indonesia, Makalah di sajikandi International Conference on Language Culture and Society, 25-26 November 2015. Indonesia Institute Sciences, Jakarta Indonesia

Bourdieu, P. . 1991. Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Doerr, N. M. 2009. The native speaker concept: ethnographic investigations of native speaker effects. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Fairclough, N. 1995. Language and Power. New York: Longman Group UK Limited.

Foucault, M. 1972. The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. New York: Pantheon.

Green, N, and M. Searle-Chatterjee. 2008. "Religion, Language, and Power: An Introductory Essay." dalam Religion, language, and power, N. Green and M.Searle-Chatterjee (editor). New York: Routledge.

Marr, C. n.d. "Assimilation through education: Indian Boarding schools in the Pacific Northwest. ." Available at: http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/erdrich/boarding/marr.htm (Diakses 11 June 2016).

Fairclough, N. 1995. Language and Power. New York: Longman Group UK Limited.

Morrison, K. dan I. Lui. 2000. Ideology, Linguistic Capital and the Medium of Instruction in Hongkong, Journal of Multilingual and MulticuluralDepolopment

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Sumitri, N. W. 2015. TradisiLisan Vera EtnikRongga, di ManggaraiTimur, Nusa TenggaraTimur. Disertasi Program StudiDoktorLinguistikUniversitasudayana Denpasar.

Thomas, L. dan W. Shan. 2007. Bahasa, Masyarakat, danKekuasaan. Yogyakarta: PustakaPelajar.


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