Hand Eczema in Nurses in COVID-19 Treatment Room: Frequency of Handwashing, Hand Sanitizer, Moisturizer, and Duration of Latex Gloves Use
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic causes health workers to use level 2 and level 3 personal protective equipment. Hand washing and the use of latex gloves are important in limiting the spread of COVID-19, but they can potentially induce hand eczema and skin pH disturbance if used too frequently. Purpose: Determine the correlation between the frequency of handwashing and duration of using hand sanitizer and moisturizer as well as skin pH level on the incidence of hand eczema in nurses in the COVID-19 treatment room at RSUD Dr. Moewardi Surakarta. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the COVID-19 treatment room at RSUD Dr. Moewardi Surakarta with 90 nurses as subjects. A validated questionnaire carried out the frequency of handwashing, hand sanitizer, moisturizer, duration of using latex gloves, and hand eczema complaints. The subject’s pH assessment was conducted after 4-5 hours in the COVID-19 treatment room. Data were analyzed bivariately with a Spearman rank correlation test. Result: There was a significant correlation with the incidence of hand eczema with the frequency of handwashing with soap (r=0.305 and p=0.003) and the duration of using latex gloves (r=0.328 and p=0.002) with a weak category correlation (r=0.200-0.399). The frequency of using hand sanitizer, moisturizer, and skin pH did not correlate with the incidence of hand eczema. Conclusion: Frequency of handwashing and the duration of using latex gloves correlated with the incidence of hand eczema, meanwhile frequency of using hand sanitizer, using moisturizer, and skin pH didn’t correlate with the incidence of hand eczema.
Shi Y, Wang G, Cai X, Deng J, Zheng L, Zhu H, et al. An overview of COVID-19. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2020; 21(5): 1–18.
CDC. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 Using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). CDC 2021; 2(1): 1-10.
Christopher PM, Roren RS, Tania C, Jayadi NN, Cucunawangsih C. Adverse skin reactions to personal protective equipment among health-care workers during COVID-19 pandemic : a multicenter cross-sectional study in Indonesia. Int J Dermatol Venereol 2020; 3(4): 211-8.
Wicaksono AJ, Zuhri UM. Hand cleaning activities during COVID-19 pandemic and the manifestation on human skin : a retrospective study. Indones J Pharm 2020; 1(1): 38–46.10
Kersh AE, Helms S, Feld S De. Glove-related allergic contact dermatitis. Dermatitis 2018; 29(1): 13–21.
Huang D, Tang Z, Qiu X, Liu X, Guo Z, Yang B, dkk. Hand eczema among healthcare workers in Guangzhou city : a cross-sectional study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2020; 8(9): 1-7.
Rundle CW, Presley CL, Militello M, Barber C, Powell DL, Jacob SE, et al. Hand hygiene during COVID-19: recommendations from the American Contact Dermatitis Society. J Am Acad Dermatol 2020; 83(6): 1730–7.
World Health Organization. Rational use of personal protective equipment for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and considerations during severe shortages. World Health Organization 2020; 1(1): 1-6.
Hu K, Fan J, Li X, Gou X, Li X, Zhou X. The adverse skin reactions of health care workers using personal protective equipment for COVID-19. Medicine 2020; 99(24): 206-13.
Guertler A, Moellhoff N, Schenck TL, Hagen CS, Kendziora B, Giunta RE, et al. The onset of occupational hand eczema among healthcare workers during the SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic: comparing a single surgical site with a COVID‐19 intensive care unit. Contact Dermatitis 2020; 83(2): 108–14.
Techasatian L, Thaowandee W, Chaiyarit J, Uppala R, Sitthikarnkha P, Paibool W, et al. Hand hygiene habits and prevalence of hand eczema during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Prim Care Community Health 2021; 12(1): 1-7.
Hui-Beckman J, Leung DYM, Goleva E. Hand hygiene impacts the skin barrier in health care workers and individuals with atopic dermatitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021; 1(2): 1-6.
Alsaidan MS, Abuyassin AH, Alsaeed ZH, Alshmmari SH, Bindaaj TF, Alhababi AA. The prevalence and determinants of hand and face dermatitis during COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based survey. Dermatol Res Pract 2020; 2(1): 1–8.
Erdem Y, Altunay IK, Aksu Çerman A, Inal S, Ugurer E, Sivaz O, et al. The risk of hand eczema in healthcare workers during the COVID‐19 pandemic: do we need specific attention or prevention strategies?. Contact Dermatitis 2020; 83(5): 422–3.
Hamnerius N, Svedman C, Bergendorff O, Björk J, Bruze M, Engfeldt M, et al. Hand eczema and occupational contact allergies in healthcare workers with a focus on rubber additives. Contact Dermatitis 2018; 79(3): 149–56.
Kampf G, Lemmen S. Disinfection of gloved hands for multiple activities with indicated glove use on the same patient. J Hosp Infect 2017; 97(1): 3–10.
Alluhayyan OB, Alshahri BK, Farhat A, Alsugair S, Siddiqui JJ, Alghabawy K, et al. Occupational-related contact dermatitis: prevalence and risk factors among healthcare workers in the Al’Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cureus 2020; 12(10): 1-7.
Elston DM, Ahmed DD, Watsky KL, Schwarzenberger K. Hand dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47: 291–9.
Agarwal US, Besarwal RK, Gupta R, Agarwal P, Napalia S. Hand eczema. Indian J Dermatol 2014; 59(3): 213-24.
Proksch E. pH in nature, humans and skin. J Dermatol 2018; 45(9):1–9.
Tiedemann D, Clausen ML, John SM, Angelova fischer I, Kezic S, Agner T. Effect of glove occlusion on the skin barrier. Contact Dermatitis 2016; 74(1): 2–10.
Wang X, Ye L, Lai Q, Wen S, Long Z, Qiu X, dkk. Altered epidermal permeability barrier function in the uninvolved skin supports a role of epidermal dysfunction in the pathogenesis of occupational hand eczema. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2020; 33(2) 94-101.
Ahmed-lecheheb D, Cunat L, Hartemann P. American Journal of Infection Control Prospective observational study to assess hand skin condition after application of alcohol-based hand rub solutions. Am J Infect Control 2012; 40(2): 160–4.
Kampf G, Ennen J. Regular use of a hand cream can attenuate skin dryness and roughness caused by frequent hand washing. BMC Dermatol 2006; 13(1); 1-6.
Bauer A, Schmitt J, Bennett C, Coenraads PJ, Elsner P, English J, et al. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 1(4):1-10.
Copyright (c) 2022 Berkala Ilmu Kesehatan Kulit dan Kelamin
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
- Copyright of the article is transferred to the journal, by the knowledge of the author, whilst the moral right of the publication belongs to the author.
- The legal formal aspect of journal publication accessibility refers to Creative Commons Atribusi-Non Commercial-Share alike (CC BY-NC-SA), (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)
- The articles published in the journal are open access and can be used for non-commercial purposes. Other than the aims mentioned above, the editorial board is not responsible for copyright violation
The manuscript authentic and copyright statement submission can be downloaded ON THIS FORM.