Main Article Content


Obesity becomes a global epidemic nowadays. The high-fat diet is used as an alternative therapy for obesity. The optimal composition of a high-fat diet to reduce body weight is still unknown. This study aimed to determine which components of a high-fat diet can decrease body weight, visceral fat, and PPARG expression of visceral fat. This study was conducted at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, for three months by using a randomized post-test only control group design. Fifty male mice, 2-3 months old, 18-30 grams were adapted for one week given standard diet AIN93-M, then mice were divided into five groups, namely K1 (control group, 12% fat, 20% protein, 62% carbs); K2 (30% fat, 60% proteins, 0% carbs); K3 (45% fat, 45% protein, 0% carbs);  K4 (60% fat, 30% protein, 0% carbs); and K5 (75% fat, 15% protein, 0% carbs). Bodyweight was measured before and after treatment, then the visceral fat and PPARG expressions were evaluated. Statistical comparisons were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. After treatment, there were forty-three mice. The body weight and visceral fat weight of the mice with a high-fat diet were decreased. The most significant changes in body weight were in K4 with -9,60 ± 3,806 grams reduction. The bodyweight of mice in K5, slightly increased than K2-K4. This could be caused by the hormesis phenomenon. PPARG expressions decreased in groups with a high-fat diet but increased in K5. The composition of a high-fat diet in group K4 was the most optimal to decrease the body weight, visceral fat, and PPARG expressions in mice


High fat diet mice obesity PPARG expressions visceral fat

Article Details

How to Cite
Melyana, C. P., Rejeki, P. S., Mudjanarko, S. W., Herawati, L., & Al-Arif, M. A. (2021). Effect of High Fat Diet on Body Weight, Visceral Fat Weight, and PPARG Expressions on Visceral Fat in Mice. Folia Medica Indonesiana, 57(3), 186–191.


  1. Calabrese EJ, Mattson MP (2017). How does hormesis impact biology: Toxicology, and medicine?. NPJ Aging Mech Dis 3, 1-8.
  2. Castro AI, Arbelaez DG, Crujeiras AB, et al (2018). Effect of a very low-calorie ketogenic diet on food and alcohol cravings, physical and sexual activity, sleep disturbances, and quality of life in obese patient. Nutrients 10, 1-19.
  3. Dewitt S, Hall J, Smith L, et al (2019). Office workers’ experiences of attempts to reduce sitting-time: An exploratory, mixed-methods uncontrolled intervention pilot study. BMC Public Health 19, 1-10.
  4. Heisel T, Montassier E, Johnson A, et al (2017). High-fat diet changes fungal microbiomes and interkingdom relationships in the murine gut. Host-Microbe Biology 2, e00351-17.
  5. Hruby A, Hu F (2015). The epidemiology of obesity: A big picture. Pharmacoeconomics 33, 673-689.
  6. Kirkpatrick CF, Bolick JP, Kris-Etherton, et al (2019). Review of current evidence and clinical recommendations on the effects of low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate (including ketogenic) diets for the management of body weight and other cardiometabolic risk factors: A scientific statement from the National Lipid Association Nutrition and Lifestyle Task Force. Journal of Clinical Lipidology 13, 689-711.
  7. Motawi TK, Shaker OG, Ismail MF, et al (2017). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in obesity and colorectal cancer: The role of epigenetics. Scientific Reports 7, 1-8.
  8. Narayanaswami V, Dwoskin LP (2017). Obesity: Current and potential pharmacotherapeutics and targets. Pharmacol Ther 170, 116-147.
  9. Paoli A (2014). Ketogenic diet for obesity: Friend or foe?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11, 2092-2107.
  10. Paoli A, Bosco G, Camporesi EM, et al (2015). Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship. Front Psychol 6, 1-9.
  11. Paoli A, Rubini A, Volek J, et al (2013). Beyond weight loss: A review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, 789-796.
  12. Seaman D (2013). Weight gain as a consequence of living a modern lifestyle: A discussion of barriers to effective weight control and how to overcome them. Journal of Chiropractic Humanities 20, 27-35.
  13. Sipe LM, Yang C, Ephrem J, et al (2017). Differential sympathetic outflow to adipose depots is required for visceral fat loss in response to calorie restriction. Nutrition & Diabetes 7, 1-8.
  14. Watanabe R, Yamaguchi M, Watanabe K, et al (2021). Effects of collagen peptide administration on visceral fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 67, 57-62.
  15. Zhang Q, Xu L, Xia J, et al (2018). Treatment of diabetic mice with a combination of ketogenic diet and aerobic exercise via modulations of PPARs gene programs. PPAR Research 2018, 1-13.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>