Main Article Content


  1. Clinical conditions, CD4+ cell counts, and the viral copies number in the blood for AIDS/HIV were given antiretroviral therapy.
  2. The profile of CD4+ levels and plasma viral load in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy
  3. The lower CD4+ cell counts and higher viral loads happen in HIV-infected’s men.



Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is expected to reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) morbidity and mortality. Antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients is given based on clinical conditions, CD4+ cell counts, and the number of viral copies in the blood. This study aimed to determine the profile of CD4+ levels and plasma viral load in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. This was a cross-sectional study conducted within six months at Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) in Jayawijaya Hospital, Papua, Indonesia. The CD4+ levels were measured using CD4+ counter and viral plasma was checked using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for 90 patients. The results showed more female patients had a CD4+ level <200 cells/mm3, a higher number of copies of the virus in the blood plasma, and stages of disease 3 and 4. Statistically, there was a significant relationship between CD4+ levels and gender with a p-value = 0.00. HIV-infected males were more likely to have lower CD4+ cell counts and higher viral loads than females.


Viral load CD4 Jayawijaya AIDS/HIV human immunodeficiency

Article Details

How to Cite
Widiyanti, M., Hadi, M. I., Adiningsih, S., Natalia, E. I., & Purba, D. A. (2022). Viral Load And Cd4+ among Hiv/Aids Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy In Jayawijaya District, Papua Province, Indonesia. Folia Medica Indonesiana, 58(1), 10–14.


  1. Birhan T, Gezie L, Techome D, et al (2020). Predictors of CD4 count changes over time among children who initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia. Trop. Med. Health 48, 1–8.
  2. Biswas S, Chen E, Gao Y, et al (2022). Modulation of HIV replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) by host antiviral factors secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor and serpin family C member 1 induced by steroid hormones. Viruses 14, 1–17.
  3. Chang J, Woods M, Lindsay R, et al (2013). Higher expression of several interferon-stimulated genes in HIV-1-infected females after adjusting for the level of viral replication. J. Infect. Dis. 208, 830–838.
  4. Cohen M, Chen Y, McCauley M, et al (2016). Antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. N. Engl. J. Med. 375, 830–839.
  5. Cohen M, Smith M, Muessig K, et al (2013). Antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 prevents transmission of HIV-1: Where do we go from here? Lancet 382, 1–20.
  6. Eaton J, Johnson L, Salomon J, et al (2012). HIV treatment as prevention: Systematic comparison of mathematical models of the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy on HIV incidence in South Africa. PLoS Med. 9, 1–20.
  7. Farahani M, Novitsky V, Wang R, et al (2016). Prognostic value of HIV-1 RNA on CD4 trajectories and disease progression among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults in Botswana: A joint modeling analysis. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 32, 573–576.
  8. Hel Z, Stringer E, Mestecky J (2010). Sex steroid hormones, hormonal contraception, and the immunobiology of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. Endocr. Rev. 31, 79–97.
  9. Hughes J, Baeten J, Lingappa J, et al (2012). Determinants of per-coital-act HIV-1 infectivity among African HIV-1–serodiscordant couples. J. Infect. Dis. 205, 358–365.
  10. İnkaya A, Örgül G, Halis N, et al (2019). Perinatal outcomes of twenty-five human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women: Hacettepe University experience. J. Turkish-German Gynecol. Assoc. 21, 180–186.
  11. Kovacs A, Karim R, Mack W, et al (2010). Activation of CD8 T cells predicts progression of HIV infection in women coinfected with hepatitis C virus. J. Infect. Dis. 201, 823–834.
  12. Maskew M, Brennan A, Westreich D, et al (2013). Gender differences in mortality and CD4+ count response among virally suppressed HIV-positive patients. J. Women’s Heal. 22, 113–120.
  13. Meier A, Chang J, Chan E, et al (2009). Sex differences in the TLR-mediated response of pDCs to HIV-1 are associated with higher immune activation in infected women. Nat. Med. 15, 955–959.
  14. Mo R, Chen J, Grolleau-Julius A, et al (2005). Estrogen regulates CCR gene expression and function in T lymphocytes. J. Immunol. 174, 6023–6029.
  15. Ruel T, Zanoni B, Ssewanyana I, et al (2011). Sex differences in HIV RNA level and CD4 cell percentage during childhood. Clin. Infect. Dis. 53, 592–599.
  16. Schwartzman-Morris J, Putterman C (2012). Gender differences in the pathogenesis and outcome of lupus and of lupus nephritis. J. Immunol. Res. 2012, 1–10.
  17. Shoko C, Chikobvu D (2019). A superiority of viral load over CD4 cell count when predicting mortality in HIV patients on therapy. BMC Infect. Dis. 19, 1–10.
  18. Sorensen SW, Sansom SL, Brooks JT, et al (2012). A mathematical model of comprehensive test-and-treat services and HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in the United States. PLoS One 7, 1-9.
  19. vom Steeg LG, Klein SL (2016). SeXX matters in infectious disease pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 12, 1-6.
  20. Wang J, Zhang L, Madera R, et al (2012). Plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon-α production to R-848 stimulation is decreased in male infants. BMC Immunol. 13, 1–5.
  21. Ziegler S, Altfeld M (2016). Sex differences in HIV-1-mediated immunopathology. Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS 11, 209–215.