Main Article Content


Poor oral health has been reported to correlate to the body mass index (BMI) of the overweight and the obesity groups. These has yet widely studied in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to analysed the oral health, socioeconomy factors (FSE) and the BMI in the seemingly healthy university students in Kediri aged 18-21 years old. This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst male and female students of IIKBW, Kediri, Indonesia (n=150). We analysed their BMI from the body weight and height (kg/m2). Their oral health was determined by the DMFT index (decayed missing filled teeth index), the stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR) and the gingival index (GI). FSE studied include father’s highest education and monthly income, tooth brushing frequency in a day and dental floss habitual use. Data was analysed using SPSS 17 with level of significance of p<0.05. No significant differences in BMI, DMFT index, SSFR and GI respectively (p=0.411;p=0.037, p=0.880, p=0.142) between male and female groups. No significant corelation BMI with DMFT index, SSFR and GI, respectively (p=0.340, p=0.420, p=0,446). FSE are not significantly correlated to either the BMI, DMFT index, SSFR orGI (p > 0.05). There were 41.8% of males and 57.8% of females have “bad” score of DMFT and 98.6% of males and 92.1% of females have “bad” score of GI; 4.1% of males and 2.6% of females have low score of SSFR.Although we found no significant differences in the BMI and oral health parameters between genders, in the seemingly healthy young adults oral health hygiene could be compromised as found in the current study indicated by bad scores of DMFT, SSFR or GI. Here we found that either BMI or FSE was not significantly correlated to any of oral health parameters measured in the current study.


DMFT index SSFR gingival index socioeconomy factor

Article Details

How to Cite
Rahmawan, D., Kalanjati, V. P., & Abdurachman, A. (2020). Oral Health Status and The Body Mass Index in Young Adults. Folia Medica Indonesiana, 56(4), 275–282.


  1. Alhaffar BA, Abbas G, Latiefeh Y, Hamadah O (2018). The oral manifestations of
  2. psychiatric disorders 17, 1-6
  3. Al-Qahtani SM, Elagib MF, Reddy NR, Alghamdi NS, Baldo SM, Kumar PM (2018). Relationship between obesity and periodontal diseases in Saudi women. A Prospective Study. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice 19, 969–973
  4. Alswat K, Mohamed WS, Wahab MA, Aboelil AA (2016).The association between body mass index and dental caries: cross-sectional study. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 8, 147–152
  5. Al-Zahrani MS, Bissada NF, Borawski EA (2003). Obesity and periodontal disease in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Journal of Periodontology 74, 610–615
  6. Carranza NTK (2015). Carranza’s Clinical Periodontology (Eds). Elsevier, Missouri, p 9-25
  7. Carvalho, PM, Castelo, PM, Carpenter, GH, Gavião, MBD (2016) Masticatory function, taste, and salivary flow in young healthy adults. Journal of Oral Science 58, 391–399
  8. Chesters RK, Huntington E, Burchell CK, Stephen KW (1992). Effect of oral care habits on caries in adolescents. Caries Res 6, 299-304
  9. De Campos MM, Kobayashi FY, Barbosa T de S, Costa S da S, Lucas B de L, Castelo PM (2014). Characteristics of salivary secretion in normal-weight, overweight and obese children: a preliminary study: salivary composition and excessive fat tissue. Odontology 102, 318–324
  10. Hiremath (2011). Textbook of preventive and community dentistry (Eds). Elsevier, Banglore, p 203-2012
  11. Joe MM, Chemiawan E, Runkat J (2007). The caries prevalence, def–t index and DMF–T index of deaf children at the primary school of special education Kota Kinabalu in Sabah. Padjadjaran J Dent 19, 85-89
  12. Kazem NM, Abd AWL, Gathwan, KH (2017). The effect of gender factor on periodontal disease 8, 588-590
  13. Kidd EAM (2005). Essentials of dental caries: the disease and its management (eds). Univ. Press Oxford, Oxford, p 135-137
  14. Kolawole KA, Oziegbe EO, Bamise CT (2011). Oral Hygiene measures and the periodontal status of school children. Int J Dent Hyg9, 143-148
  15. Modéer T, Blomberg CC, Wondimu B, Julihn A, Marcus C (2010). Association between obesity, flow rate of whole saliva, and dental caries in adolescents obesity. Nature Publishing group18, 2367–2373
  16. Noviani N (2010). Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan status karies gigi (DMFT) santri pesantren al ashriyyah nurul iman Pasuruan Bogor. Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, p 42-43
  17. Pergub Jawa Timur (2018). Peraturan Gubernur Provinsi Jawa Timur mengenai upah minimum Kabupaten/Kota di Jawa Timurtahun 2018. Available from: July 22 2019
  18. Poobalan A, Aucott L (2016) Obesity among young adults in developing countries: a systematic overview. Curr Obes Rep 5, 2–13
  19. Prpić J, Kuiš D, Glažar I., Pezelj RS (2013). Association of obesity with periodontitis, tooth loss and oral hygiene non-smoking adults. Central European Journal of Public Health.21, 196–201
  20. Rahman B, Kawas SA (2013). The relationship between dental health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students in the United Arab Emirates. European Journal of Dentistry 7, 22-27
  21. Reeves, AF, Rees, JM, Schiff, M, Hujoel, P (2006). Total Body Weight and Waist Circumference Associated With Chronic Periodontitis Among Adolescents in the United States. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 160, 895-899
  22. Schroth, RJ, Levi, J, Kliewer, E, Friel, J, Moffatt, ME (2013). Association between iron status, iron deficiency anaemia, and severe early childhood caries: a case–control study. BMC Pediatr 13, 22
  23. Tyrrell J, Jones S, Beaumont R, Astley CM, Lovell R, Yaghootkar H, Tuke M, Ruth KS, Freathy RM, Hirschhorn JN, Wood AR, Murray A, Weedon MN, Frayling TM (2016). Height, body mass index, and socioeconomic status: mendelian randomisation study in UK Biobank. BMJ, i582
  24. Vallogini G, Nobili V, Rongo R, De Rosa S, Magliarditi S, D’Antò V, Galeotti A (2017). Evaluation of the relationship between obesity, dental caries and periodontal disease in adolescents. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 18, 268–272
  25. Verma P, Verma, KG, Rishi S, Sachdeva S, Juneja S, Rout P (2013). Correlation between body mass index, dental caaries and frequency of sugar consumption in adult population of Rajasthan State, India. Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology 25, 85-88
  26. WHO (2000). The Asia-Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment. Sydney, Health Communication. Availablefrom: http//
  27. docs/Redefiningobesity.pdf.Accessed May 26, 2019
  28. Yang P, Zhou Y, Chen B, Wan HW, Jia GQ, Bai, HL, Wu XT (2009). Overweight, obesity and gastric cancer risk: Results from a meta-analysis of cohort studies. European Journal of Cancer 45, 2867–2873