Main Article Content

Abstract

Highlights:



  1. Malaria is prevalent in many populations of communities despite preventive measures.

  2. The experimental was screened for bioactive components which could be the reason for the antimalarial effect and the plant shows dose dependent antimalarial activity.


 


Abstract :


Malaria has been one of the world’s worst killer diseases throughout recorded human history. Despite attempts to eradicate the disease, it remains a global burden. This could be a result of parasite resistance to current therapy. However, this research aimed at evaluating the in vitro antimalarial activity of ethanolic extracts of Terminalia mantaly on Plasmodium falciparum. The plant extracts were prepared by cold maceration in 70% ethanol and air-dried by a rotary evaporator. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard procedures outlined in the Analytical methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 1990) which indicates the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenol, steroids, and balsam. The in vitro antimalarial assay was carried out according to the method described by WHO (2001). All data were represented as Mean ± Standard deviation. Ethanolic extracts of the three parts of the plant were subjected to in vitro antimalarial activity at three concentrations (300 mg, 150 mg, and 75 mg) in four replicates with artemether (standard drug) as a positive control. Stem bark at 300 mg/kg completely cleared the parasites with a 0.00% parasitaemia rate and there was no significant difference when compared with positive control at p<0.005 value of 1.00. This study affirms the use of the plant for the treatment of malaria.

Keywords

Malaria terminalia mantaly plasmodium falciparum Tropical Disease

Article Details

How to Cite
Usman, B. M., Attah, D. D.-I., & Kanya, D. Y. (2022). Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and Invitro Antiplasmodial Activity of Terminalia mantaly Against Plasmodium falciparum. Folia Medica Indonesiana, 58(4), 318–324. https://doi.org/10.20473/fmi.v58i4.34180

References

  1. Abdulrazaq A, Abdulkadir B, Isyaku NT, et al (2020). Invitro antimalarial activity of Extracts of Some Indigenous Plant Species in Kebbi State. UMYU journal of microbiology research.50(2):1-10
  2. A Driss, M Jacqueline, O Nana, et al. (2011). Genetic polymorphisms linked to susceptibility to malaria Malar. J., (10):271
  3. Afnan Alqethami, Amal Y Aldhebiani (2021). Medicinal plants used in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Phytochemical screening, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 28(1):805-812
  4. Akira I, Chiaki I, Mika Y, et al (2001). A potent antimalarial activity of Hydrangea macrophylla var. Otaksa leaf extract against Plasmodium yoelii 17XL in mice. Parasitology International, 50:33-39
  5. Bekono BD, Ntie-kang F, Owono LCO (2020). The potential antimalarial compounds derived from African Medicinal plants: A review of pharmacological evaluations from 2013 to 2019. Malaria Journal. 19:183
  6. Carter JA, Ross AJ, Neville BG, et al (2005). Developmental impairments following severe falciparum malaria in children. Trop Med Int Health.10(1):3–10.
  7. Ebele OP, Treasure UN, Gerald UW et al. (2021). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial evaluation of ethanol extract and fractions of the leaf of Terminalia mantaly H. Perrier (Combretaceae). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 10(3):07-10.
  8. Ekasari W, Basuki DR, Arwati H et al. (2021). Antiplasmodial activity of Ethanolic extract of Cassia spectabilis DC leaf and its inhibition effect in Heme detoxification. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 21, 71.
  9. Emilie KI, Otis TB, David JN (2015). Hepatic tolerance study of hydro-alcoholic extract of Terminalia mantaly H. Perrier (Combretaceae) in rats. Journal of phytopharmacology, 4(3):164-171
  10. EMS Hodel, C Csajka, F Ariey,et al. (2013). Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 isoenzyme and N-acetyltransferase 2 genes on the metabolism of artemisinin-based combination therapies in malaria patients from Cambodia and Tanzania Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 57:950- 958
  11. Evans WC (1995). Textbook on pharmacognosy. 13th Edition. Baliere-Tidall, London.
  12. Fenta M, Kahaliw W (2019). Evaluation of antimalarial activity of hydromethanolic crude extract and solvent fractions of the leaves of Nuxia congesta R. Br. Ex Fresen (Buddlejaceae) in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Journal of experimental pharmacology, 11:121-134
  13. Gebrehiwot S, Shumbahri M, Eyado et al (2019). Phytochemical screening and in vivo antimalarial activity of two traditionally used medicinal plants of Afar region, Ethiopia against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss Albino mice. Journal of parasitology research.2019:8
  14. Hagazy K, Sibhat GG, Karim A, et al (2020). Antimalarial activity of Meriandra dianthera leaf extracts in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine, 2020:8980212
  15. Kurniawan RB, Wardhani P, Arwati H, et al (2020). Association o parasite Density and Hematological Parameters od Plasmodium vivax- and Palsmodium falciparum-infected Patients Attending Merauke General Hospital. Papua Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 8, 825-31.
  16. Kurniawan RB, Wardhani P, Arwati H, et al (2020). Association of parasite Density and Hematological Parameters Plasmodium vivax- and Plasmodium falciparum-infected Patients Attending Merauke General Hospital. Papua Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 8, 825-31.
  17. Kokwaro JO (2009). Medicinal plants of East Africa. Nairobi University Press. 3rd Edition.Nairobi
  18. Kweyamba PA, Zofou D, Nyindo et al (2019). Invitro and invivo studies on antimalarial activity of Commiphora Africana and Dichrostachys cinerea used by the Maasai in Arusha region, Tanzania. Malarial Journal, 18:119
  19. Marie TKR, Mfouapon HM, Kengne EAM, et al (2018). Anti-Plasmodium falciparum activity of extracts from 10 Cameroonian medicinal plants. Medicine. 18:5-115
  20. Mayer DC, G Bruce M, Kochurova O, et al (2009). Antimalarial activity of a cis-terpenone. Malaria Journal, 8(139):1-4.
  21. Mbouna CDJ, Kouipou RMT, Keumoe R, et al (2018). Potent Antiplasmodial extracts and fractions from Terminalia mantaly and Terminalia superba. Malaria journal, 17(142):1-10
  22. Mudi SY. Muhammad A. (2009). Antimalaria activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Terminalia catappa. L. combretaceae (indian almond). Bayero journal of pure and applied sciences, 2(1): 14 - 18
  23. Musila MF, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, et al (2013). In vivo antimalarial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of selected antimalarial plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 146(2):557-61.
  24. Otubanjo AO (2013). Parasites of man and animal. Concept Publications Limited, Lagos. pp. 193-222
  25. Pedronic HC, Betton CC, Splalding SM et al (2006). Plasmodium: Development of Irreversible experimental malaria model in Wister rats. Experimental Parasitology, 113: 193-196.
  26. Samuel B and Adekunle YA (2021). Isolation and structure elucidation of anti-malarial principles from Terminalia mantaly H. Perrier stem bark. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 15(1):282-292.
  27. Tali MBT, Mbouna CDJ, Tchokouaha LRY, et al (2020). In Vivo Antiplasmodial activity of Terminalia mantaly Stem bark aqueous extract in mice infected by Plasmodium berghei. Journal of Parasitology Research. 2020:1-9
  28. Taylor DJ, Green NPO, Stout GW (2006). Biological science. Third edition. Cambridge University Press. Pp 507
  29. Teka T, Awgichew T, Kassahun H (2020). Antimalarial activity of the leaf latex of Aloe weloensis against Plasmodium berghei in mice. Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2020:1397043
  30. TK Ngouana, CDJ Mbouna, RMT Kuipou, et al (2015).Potent and synergistic extract combinations from Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mantaly and Monodora tenuifolia against pathogenic yeasts Medicines, 2:220-235
  31. Thwing J, Eisele TP, Steketee RW (2011). Protective efficacy of malaria case management and intermittent preventive treatment for preventing malaria mortality in children: a systematic review for the Lives Saved Tool. BMC Public Health. 11 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S14.
  32. Trager W, Jensen JB (1976). Human malaria parasites in continuous culture. Science, 193, 673–675.
  33. VPK Titanji, D Zofou MN (2008). Ngemenya.The Antimalarial potential of medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in Cameroonian folk medicinie. Afr. J. Tradit., Complementary Altern. Med., 5 (3) :302-321.
  34. World Health Organisation (2001). Drug Resistance to Malaria. Retrieved from www.who.org on March 27, 2019
  35. World Health Organization (2001). In vitro micro test (MarkIII) for the assessment of the response of Plasmodium Falciparum to chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and artemisinin. Geneva. Accessed on March 27, 2019
  36. World Health Organization (2006). Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. Geneva. Accessed on March 29, 2019
  37. World Health Organization (2009). World Malaria Report. Geneva. Accessed from www.who.org on April 16, 2019
  38. World Health Organisation (2019). World Malaria Report. Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/27 5867 on July 17, 2019
  39. Z Desta, and D A.Flockhart. (2017). Pharmacogenetics of drug metabolism. Clinical and Translational Science: Principles of Human Research (Second edition), Elsevier Inc.327-345