Main Article Content


This study was to compare the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on contrast and macular light sensitivity improvement in dry type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. The subjects were eyes that had been diagnosed with dry type AMD which met inclusion criteria. The subjects were divided into two groups. The first group was given antioxidants and HBOT. The second group was given only antioxidants. Contrast and macular light sensitivity test were done using MARS contrast sensitivity chart and Humphrey Field Analyzer-3 for three times, pre-therapy, day-1 and 14 post- therapy. This study found that 25 eyes were included for analysis, 14 subjects in first group, and 11 subjects in second group. Statistical analysis results showed that there were significant increase on contrast sensitivity in intervention group between one-day post-therapy with pre-therapy, P = 0.003 (P <0.05), and between 14-days post-therapy with pre-therapy, P = 0,015 (P <0.05). From pre- and post-analysis, there were no significant difference found on contrast sensitivity in control group and macular light sensitivity in intervention group. In control group, there were significant increase on superotemporal, superonasal, and inferonasal area between one-day post-therapy and pra-therapy with P = 0.004, P = 0.013 and P = 0.008 (P <0.05), respectively, and there was significant decrease on inferonasal area between 14-days post-therapy and one-day post-therapy, P = 0.003 (P <0.05). In conclusion, patients with AMD who were subjected to HBOT achieved improvement in contrast sensitivity in cases considered as having low prognosis. HBOT should be considered as promising intervention for AMD management adjuvant and further research are needed to find optimal dosage.


AMD Hyperbaric oxygen contrast sensitivity light sensitivity

Article Details

How to Cite
Dewi, I. K., Moestidjab, M., & Harnanik, T. (2021). Hyperbaric Oxygen Effects on Contrast and Macular Light Sensitivity in Dry Type Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients. Folia Medica Indonesiana, 57(1), 34–40.


  1. Chandramohan, A., Stinnett, S. S., Petrowski, J. T., Schuman, S. G., Toth, C. A., Cousins, S. W., et al. (2016). Visual Function Measures in Early and Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Retina , 1021-1031.
  2. Chao, C., & Chao, J.-K. (2017). The Effect of Neovascularization on Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium after Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy . Health Science Journal , 1-5.
  3. Chew, E. Y., Clemons, T. E., Agron, E., Sperduto, R. D., SanGiovanni, J. P., Kurinij, N., et al. (2013). Long-Term Effects of Vitamin C, E, Beta-Carotene and Zinc on Age-Related Macular Degeneration. AREDS Report No. 35. Ophthalmology , 1604-1611.
  4. Faria, B. M., Duman, F., Zheng, C. X., Waisbourd, M., Gupta, L., Ali, M., et al. (2015). Evaluating Contrast Sensitivity in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using A Novel Computer-Based Test, The Spaeth/Richman Contrast Sensitivity Test. Retina, The Journal of Retinal and Vitreous Diseases , 1465-1473.
  5. Keane, P. A., Patel, P. J., Ouyang, Y., Chen, F. K., Ikeji, F., Walsh, A. C., et al. (2010). Effects of Retinal Morphology on Contrast Sensitivity and Reading Ability in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science , 5431-5437.
  6. Linsenmeier, R. A., & Zhang, H. F. (2017). Retinal Oxygen: from Animals to Humans. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research , 1-105.
  7. McCannel, C. A., Atebara, N. H., Kim, S. J., Leonard, B. C., Rosen, R. B., Sarraf, D., et al. (2016). Basic and Clinical Science Course Retina and Vitreous. San Fransisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology.
  8. Owsley, C., Huisingh, C., Clark, M. E., Jackson, G. R., & McGwin Jr, G. (2015). Comparison of Visual Function in Older Eyes in The Earliest Stages of Age-related Macular Degeneration to Those in Normal Macular Health. Current Eye Research , 1-7.
  9. Panfoli, I., Calzia, D., Ravera, S., Morelli, A., & Traverso, C. (2012). Extra-mitochondrial Aerobic Metabolism in Retinal Rod Outer Segments: New Perspectives in Retinopathies. Medical Hypotheses , 423-427.
  10. Sadigh, S., Cideciyan, A. V., Sumaroka, A., Huang, W. C., Luo, X., Swider, M., et al. (2013). Abnormal Thickening as well as Thinning of The Photoreceptor Layer in Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science , 1603-1612.
  11. Sevilla, M. B., McGwin Jr, G., Lad, E. M., Clark, M., Yuan, E. L., Farsiu, S., et al. (2016). Relating Retinal Morphology and Function in Aging and Early to Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Subjects. American Journal of Ophthalmology , 65-77.
  12. Stefansson, E., Geirsdottir, A., & Sigurdsson, H. (2011). Metabolic Physiology in Age Related Macular Degeneration. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research , 72-80.
  13. Weiss, J. N. (2010). Hyperbaric Oxygen Theraphy and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society , 101-105.
  14. Widodo, D., Hisnindarsyah, & Harnanik, T. (2016). Buku Ajar Ilmu Kesehatan Penyelaman dan Hiperbarik. Surabaya: Lakesla.