The Epidemiological Pattern and Risk Factor of ESBL (Extended Spectrum Β-Lactamase) Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gut Bacterial Flora of Dairy Cows and People Surrounding in Rural Area, Indonesia
Livestock would be a risk factor of resistant bacteria that impact on human health. Rural area with farms as major economic source has become a risk of the spread of the ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae The aim of the study was to explore the distribution and risk factor of ESBL (extended-spectrum β-lactamase) producing Enterobacteriaceae in the gut bacterial flora of dairy cows and people surrounding farming area. Total of 204 fecal swab samples were collected, 102 from dairy cows and 102 from farmers. Samples were sub-cultured by streaking on MacConkey agar supplemented with 2 mg/L cefotaxime. The growing colonies were confirmed of the ESBL producer by Modified Double Disk Test (M-DDST) and identification of Enterobacteriaceae by biochemical test. ESBL genes were identified by PCR. ESBL producing bacteria were found 13.7% in dairy cows and 34.3% in farmers. ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in dairy cows were 6.9% and in farmers of 33.3%. Statistical analysis showed: Distribution of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae strain were insignificant among dairy cows and farmers while blaTEM distribution was significantly diﬀerent (p= 0,035) and use of antibiotic was identified as a risk factor of colonization of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in farmers (p= 0,007). Farmers had suspected as the source of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae based on higher prevalence. Further education of appropriate use of antibiotic need to enhance to control risk factor and prevent the colonization of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae
Health Ministry of The Republic of Indonesia. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Becomes World Attention. News Release. 2018. [cited 30 January 2019]. Available from: <http://www.depkes.go.id/article/view/18112900002/pengendalian-resistensi-antimikroba-jadi-perhatian-dunia.html>.
Central Bureau of Statistics of Republic Indonesia. Dairy Cows Population by Province, 2009-2018. Animal husbandry. Dynamic Table. [cited 29 December 2019]. Available from: (https://www.bps.go.id/linkTableDinamis/view/id/1018).
Goverment of District of Pasuruan. Official Website of Pasuruan Regency Goverment : Pasuruan Regency has The First County of Dairy Farm Centre In Indonesia, [cited 4 Nopember 2019]. Available from: <https://www.pasuruankab.go.id/>.
Shaikh S, Fatima J, Shakil S, Rizvi SMD, Kamal MA. Antibiotic Resistance And Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase : Types, Epidemiology And Treatment, Saudi J Bio Sci. 2015 ;22(1) ;90-101. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.08.002
Brolund A. Overview of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae From A Nordic Perspective. Review, Infect Ecol Epidemiol, 2014; 4: 1-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.3402/iee.v4.24555
Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Bender KS, Buckley DH, Stahl DA. Brock Biology of Microorganism, 14th edn, Pearson Education Inc.S;
Dandachi I, Chabou S, Daoud Z, and Rolain JM. Prevalence and Emergence Of Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin, Carbapenem and Colistin-Resistant Gram Negative Bacteria Of Animal Origin In The Mediterranean Basin. Front Microbiol. Review. 2018; 9(2299): 1 – 26. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00550
Dahms C, Hubner NO, Kossow A, Mellmann A, Dittmann K, Kramer A. Occurance of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli in Livestock and Farm Workers in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, Plos One. 2015; 10(11): 1-13 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143326
Carroll KC, Morse SA, Mretzner T, Miller S. Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology, 27th edn, Mcgraw Hill Education: Lange Medical Books; 2016, pp.351-360.
Subronto. Ilmu Penyakit Ternak (Mamalia). 3th edn. Yogyakarta. Gadjah Mada University Press; 2008.
Nurhayati, IS dan Martindah, E. Pengendalian Mastitis Subklinis Melalui Pemberian Antibiotik Saat Periode Kering Pada Sapi Perah. Wartazoa. 2015; 25(2): 065 – 074. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v25i2.1143
Amelia A, Nugroho A, and Harijanto PN. Diagnosis and Management of Infections Caused by Enterobacteriaceae Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase. Acta Med Indones-Indones J Intern Med. 2016; 48(2): 156-166.
Woerther PL, Burdet C, Chachaty E, and Andremont A. Trends in Human Fecal Carriage of Extended- Spectrum β-Lactamases in The Community : Toward The Globalization of CTX-M. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013; 26(4): 744-758. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00023-13
Schreckenberger P and Rekasius V, 2007. Procedure Double Disk Diffusion Confirmation of ESBL. Layola University Medical Center. pp 1 – 7.
Ferreira CM, William AF, Almeida NCOdS, Naveca FG, Barbosa MdGV. Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producing Bacteri Isolated From Hematologic Patients In Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Braz J Microbiol. 2011 Jul-Sep; 42(3): 1076-1084. doi: 10.1590/S1517-838220110003000028
Atterby C, Osbjer K, Tepper V, Rajala E, Hernandez J, Seng S, Holl D, Bonnedahl J, Borjesson S, Magnusson U, and Jarhult JD. Carriage Of Carbapenemase‐ And Extended‐Spectrum Cephalosporinase‐Producing Escherichia Coli And Klebsiella Pneumoniae In Humans And Livestock In Rural Cambodia; Gender And Age Differences And Detection Of Blaoxa‐ 48 In Humans. Wiley. Zoonoses Public Health. 2019 Sep; 66(6): 603–617. doi: 10.1111/zph.12612
Luvsansharav UO, Hirai I, Nakata A, Imura K, Yamauci K, Niki M, Komalamisra C, Kusolsuk T, and Yamamoto Y. Prevalence of and Risk Factors Associated With Faecal Carriage of CTX-M β-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae In Rural Thai Communities, Journal Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2012 Jul; 67(7): 1769 – 1774. doi : https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dks118
Zhang H, Zhou Y, Guo S, and Chan W. High prevalence and risk factors of fecal carriage of CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from healthy. Front Microbiol. 2015 March; 6(239): 1 – 5. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00239
Paterson DL and Bonomo RA. Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases : a Clinical Update. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005 Oct; 18(4): 657–686. Doi: 10.1128/CMR.18.4.657-686.2005.
Rozwandowicz M, brouwer MSM, Fisher J, Wagenaar JA, Gonzalez-Zorn B, Guerra B, Mevius DJ, and Hordijk J, 2018. Plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2018 May; 73(5): 1121–1137. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkx488
De A. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Infections, In : Parthasarathy A, Kundu R, Agrawal R, Choudhury J, Shastri DD, Yewale VN, Shah AK, Uttam KG, Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, IAP, National Publication House, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD, New Delhi; 2013.
Rolain JM. Food and human gut as reservoirs of transferable antibiotic resistance encoding genes. Front Microbiol. Review. 2013 June; 4(173): 1 – 10. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2013.00173
Araque M, and Labrador I. Prevalence of Fecal Carriage of CTX-M-15 Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Healthy Children From A Rural Andean Village In Venezuela. Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018; 9(1): 9 –15. doi: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.03
Bradford FA. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase In The 21st Century : Characterization, Epidemiology, and Detection of Important Resistance Threat. Clin Microbiol Rev, 2001 Oct; 14(4): 933-951. doi : 10.1128/CMR.14.4.933–951.2001
Rossolini GM, D’Andrea MD, and Mugnaioli C. The spread of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum b-lactamases. Journal Compilation 2008 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, CMI. Review. 2008; 14 (Suppl. 1): 33–41. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01867.x
Dubey RC. A Textbook of Biotechnology with Biotechnology Practicals for Class XII. Revised edition. S. Chand & Company PVT. LTD. Ram Nagar. New Delhi; 2014.
Bevan ER, Jones AM, and Hawkey PM. Global Epidemiology Of CTX-M Β-Lactamases: Temporal And Geographical Shifts In Genotype. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Editor’s Choice. 2017 August; 72(8): 2145–2155. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkx146
Canton R, Gonzalez-Alba JM, and Galan JC. CTX-M Enzymes: Origin and Diffusion. Front Microbiol. Review. 2012 April; 3(110): 1-19. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2012.00110
Carattoli A. Plasmids In Gram Negatives : Molecular Typing of Resistance Plasmids. International Journal of Medical Microbiology. Mini Review. Abstract. Elsevier. 2011 December; 301(8); 654-658. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2011.09.003
Carattoli A. Resistance Plasmid Families in Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy, Mini Review. 2009 June; 53(6): 2227–2238. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01707-08
Livermore DM. Bacterial Resistance: Origins, Epidemiology, And Impact. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2003 Jan; 36(Issue Supplement_1): S11–S23. doi: https://doi.org/10.1086/344654
Olsen RH, Bisgaard M, Lohren U, Robineau B, and Christensen H. Extended – Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated From Poultry : A Review of Current Problems, IIlustrated With Some Laboratory Findings. Avian Pathology. 2014 Apr; 43(3): 199–208. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2014.907866
Both authors and the Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease (IJTID) agree with the following attribution of the journal
- Authors transfer the Copyright and grant IJTID the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows IJTID to share and adapt the articles by giving appropriate credit and distributing them to the readers for free under the same license
- Authors are permitted to copy and redistribute the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book) with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in IJTID.
IJTID requires Copyright Transfer Agreement from the author(s) for each article published. We, therefore, ask you to complete and return this form, retaining a copy for your records. Your cooperation is essential and appreciated.