The United States’ Zero Tolerance Immigration Policy: An Analysis of Structural Violence

Karina Utami Dewi, Desti Putri Cahyani

= http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jgs.14.1.2020.31-44
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Abstract


Kebijakan imigrasi Zero Tolerance merupakan salah satu bentuk kebijakan yang diformulasikan oleh pemerintahan Donald Trump dengan tujuan untuk mengurangi jumlah imigran tanpa dokumen yang memasuki wilayah Amerika Serikat. Kebijakan imigrasi ini menjadi isu yang mendapat sorotan dari dunia internasional karena sarat dengan pelanggaran hak-hak asasi manusia, dan memosisikan imigran tanpa dokumen serta anak-anak dalam keadaan yang rentan. Tulisan ini mengelaborasi bahwa kebijakan ini mengindikasikan kekerasan struktural pada penerapannya, dengan menggunakan konsep Kekerasan Struktural yang ditulis oleh Johan Galtung, dan mencoba membuktikan terjadinya kekerasan struktural serta alasan mengapa kebijakan ini dilakukan oleh Amerika Serikat. Terdapat tiga argumen utama pada tulisan ini; pertama, kekerasan struktural terbukti telah dilakukan oleh Amerika Serikat dapat dilihat melalui subjek, objek, serta tindakan dalam konsep Kekerasan Struktural. Kedua, terdapat faktor pendorong yang sifatnya sengaja dan tidak sengaja dalam melakukan kebijakan yang mengakibatkan kekerasan struktural. Yang ketiga, Amerika Serikat menjalankan kebijakan ini dengan menggunakan pendekatan yang menekankan pada reward dan punishment.

 

Kata-kata kunci: imigrasi, kekerasan struktural, Amerika Serikat

 

 

Zero Tolerance Immigration Policy is one form of policy formulated by the Donald Trump administration to reduce undocumented immigrants entering the United States. This immigration policy has become an issue of international attention because it is full of human rights violations, and places the undocumented immigrants and children in an unsafe condition. This paper describes that the policy mentioned above indicates structural violence in its implementation, employs the concept of Structural Violence written by Johan Galtung, and tries to prove the occurrence of structural violence and the reasons why this policy was carried out by the United States. There are three main arguments in this paper; first, there is indeed structural violence that has been committed by the United States as observed in the object, subject, and actions in the concept of Structural Violence. Second, there are intended and unintended motivations in implementing this policy, which encouraged structural violence. Third, The United States carries out this policy by using an approach that emphasizes reward and punishment.

 

Keywords: immigration, structural violence, United States


Keywords


Immigration; structural violence; United States

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References


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